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სტუმარი » 14 სექ 10, 15:26:45




adreuli shua saukuneebi iaponiis istoriashi socialur-politikuri da socialur-politikuri reformebis xanaa. es is periodia, roca iamatos samefos adgilze chamoyalibda axali saxelmcifo nihonis an nipponis saxelcodebit, anu rogorc iaponelebi ghimilit amboben, “ertaderti saxelmcifo amqveynad romelmac zustad ar icis tavisi saxeli”. “nihon” (“nippon”) ori ieroglifit icereba da nishnavs amomavali mzis qveyanas (mzis fesvebs).

axali saxelmcifos sheqmna ramdenime faqtorma daachqara. chinetidan shemosuli budizmi VI s–is iaponiashi sabolood ganmtkicda. budistur monastrebtan gaixsna skolebi. VII s-is shua clebi istoriografiashi cnobilia, rogorc taikas gadatrialebis an taikas reformebis xana (taika – sityvasityvit, didi cvlileba). 645 cels, mas shemdeg, rac sogas dinastia gaanadgures, imperatorma kotokum (645-654 cc.) araerti reforma gaatara: aikrdzala micisa da adamianebis kerdzo mflobeloba, mteli mica gamocxadda saxelmcifo sakutrebad da gadaeca temebs. gvaris yofili xelmdzghvanelebi, codebrivi aristokratebi, temis tavisufali cevrebi gaxdnen, mosaxleobis danarcheni nacili ki temis glexobad iqca. monoba titqmis gauqmda, magram aqa-iq mainc shemorcha. taikas reformebi sheidzleba ganvixilot rogorc adrefeodalur cyobaze gadasvla. am reformebis ganxorcielebis shemdeg, 710 cels, daarsda iaponiis pirveli dedaqalaqi nara. igi agebuli iyo tanis dinastiis droindeli (618-907 cc.) chinetis dedaqalaqis – chanandis (dghevandeli siakni) dagegmarebit, oghond, chanandisgan gansxvavebit, galavani ar hqonda da shenobebic mxolod xisa iyo. qalaqi kundzul honsiuze gashenda (dghevandel naris prefeqturashi, amave saxelcodebis qalaq-muzeumis adgilas).

am periodshi sheiqmna “kojiki”, “nihonhi”, “manioshiu, “fudoki” da sxva cerilobiti dzeglebi. 770 clidan icyeba cignebis beghdva. amave periodshia agebuli todaijis satadzro ansamvli (734-756 cc.) VII s-s miekutvneba unikaluri kedlis mxatvrobit gantqmuli da iaponiashi shemorcheniltagan udzvelesi tadzari horiuji. aseve sainteresea VIII s-is xutsartuliani pagoda kofukuji. tanamedrove naris erovnul muzeumshi inaxeba imdroindeli gamoyenebiti xelovnebis, ferceris, skulpturisa da udzvelesi dokumentebis koleqciebi. nara dghes iaponiis ert-erti udidesi kulturuli da turistuli centria. is dedaqalaqi iyo 710-idan 787 clamde, VIII saukunis bolos ki heianma shecvala.



religia – budizmi
budizmi iaponiashi VI s-idan ganmtkicda, manamde iaponelebi mas chinetidan icnobdnen. “nihongis” mixedvit, 552 ce;s koeris samefo elchobas tan chamohyvnen budisti misionerebi da tavianti religiis qadagebis uflebac miighes. gaixsna budisturi monastrebi da skolebi. iaponelebma, rogor sxva kontinenturi qveynebis mcxovreblebma, biduzmic taviseburad gaiges. mat budashi dainaxes bednierebis momtani da ubedurebisgan damcveli ghctaeba, rac amartlebda shintos funqciebs, sasaxlis karze ki budashi saxelmcifos mfarvel ghmerts xedavdnen.

budizmma udidesi gavlena moaxdina amomavali mzis qveynis xelovnebaze, arqiteqturaze, literaturaze, saertod, mtels iaponur azrovnebaze.

VII – VIII ss-shi daicyo budisturi tadzrebis intensiuri mshenebloba. imperatoria brdzanebit yvela provinciashi aigo budisturi pagodebi da daidga budas qandakebebi.


VII s-is pirvel meotxedshi qveyanashi ukve 50-mde budisturi tadzari iyo. feradi tadzrebi morcmuneebs garegnuli didebulebit xiblavda. budizmis gavlena kidev ufro gafartovda da gadzlierda heianis epoqashi, XII s-shi ki qveyanashi chamoyalibda budizmis otxi dziritadi tradiciuli skola: dzeni, niricheni, jiodo da shinshiu. shemdgom saukuneebshi dziritadad am otxma skolam moaxdina udidesi gavlena iaponelta erovnuli fsiqologiis chamoyalibebaze.

budizmtan ertad dghemde mtels iaponias aertianebs shintoisturi ces-chveulebebi.


ganatleba
pirveli skolebi iaponiashi VI s-shi gachnda budistur monastrebtan ertad, romlebic kulturisa da soxialuri centrebis rols asrulebdnen. VIII s-is dasacyisshi miighes pirveli sakanonmdeblo aqti ganatlebis shesaxeb, romlis tanaxmadac dedaqalaqsa da provinciebshi saxelmcifo skolebi gaixsna. carchinebulta shvilebs ascavlidnen chinur klasikur literatiras, filosofias, kanonebs, istoriasa da matematikas. IX s-shi ududesma mceralma, kaligrafma da ganmanatlebelma kobo daishim (kukai) am sascavleblebis paralelurad gaxsna skolebi ubrali adamianebis shvilebistvis. es skolebi XII s-is bolomde, heianis epiqis dasasrulamde shemorcha

damcerloba
iaponuri damcerloba dziritadad chinur ieroglifebs efudzneba. miuxedavad amisa, mas damsaxurebuli adgili ukavia msoflios 14 damcerlobas shoris. chinuri ieroglifebi iaponiashi pirvelad V-VI ss-shi gamochnda da sabolood damkvidrda VIII s-shi. ieroglifebit daicyes iaponuri sityvebis fudzeta chacera. ase gachnda ieroglifebis cminda iaponuri cakitxva, kuniomi. ieroglifurma damcerlobam sheinarchuna iaponurad adaptirebuli dzvelchinuri cakitxvac – oniomi, romelic aseve am sityvis fudzes sheesabameboda.

iaponur enaze erti ieroglifi ramdenimenairad sheidzleba caikitxo.

imis gamo, rom chinuri da iaponuri enebi gramatikulad dzalian gansxvavebulia, gachnda axali nishnebis chaceris aucilebloba. ukve VIII s-shi zogiert ieroglifs fonetikur nishnad iyenebdnen, magram esec araert gaugebrobas icvevda. IX s-shi ieroglifebis shemoklebuli chacerit, “joxebis” (xazebis) raodenobis shemcirebit, sheiqmna marcvlovani anbani – kana. kanas sxvadasxva sistemidan upirvelesi mnishvneloba mieniჭa da X s-idan dghemde ucvlelia ori: hiragana da katakana.

katakana da hiragana ertmanetisgan mxolod moxazulobit gansxvavdeba – orive ertnairad ikitxeba, orive sistemas aqvs 46-46 dziritadi nishani, xolo certilebisa da ori mdzimis damatebit am nishnebis raodenoba izrdeba.


heianis epoqa
794 cels iaponiis dedaqalaqi gaxda heiani, dghevandeli kioto. 794-1184 clebs heianis epoqas, anu iaponuri renesansis xanas ucodeben. heiani, naris msgavsad, chinuri dagegmarebit igeboda, magram ara brma mibadzvit – cdilobdnen, yvelafristvis iaponuri ieri miecat.

dedaqalaqis chrdiloetit mdebare imperatoris sasaxle saero arqitekturis klasikuri nimushia. heianis arqiteqtura ert-erti sauketesoa ara marto iaponiashi, aramed Mtels aghmosavlur kulturashi.

cina saukuneebmshi sheqmnilma saganmanatleblo skolebma xeli sheucyo kulturis ganvitarebas. poeziam da prozam imaghles mcvervals miaghcia.

am epoqashi moghvaceobda dghemde saxelgantqmuli ocamde poeti. prozaul nacarmoebebs dziritadad qmnidnen qalebi: sei-shionagoni, mirasaki shikibu da idzumi. shikibus shemoqmedeba dghesac prozis mcvervalad itvleba. am epoqashi kidev ufro ganvitarda 770 cels dacyebuli beჭdviti saqmianiba. amastan, ganvitarda astromonia, geografia, istoria, matematika da sxva dargebi. rogorch chinuri da koreuli cyaroebi mocmoben, iaponiashi sakmaod maghal dones miaghcia medicinam.

pirveli iaponuri cerilobiti dzegli “kojiki” gvacnobs udzveles mitebs amomavali mzis qveynis mkvidrta tradiciuli medicinis shesaxeb. rac sheexeba iaponuri panteonis medicinia da mkurnalobis ghmerts – bhaishajiagurs – igi induri mitologiidan shemosuli ghmertia (ind. bhaishajiaraja da bhaijia-samudgata), tumca mas sheercya ufro adreuli shintoituri mkurnalobis ghvtaebata nishan-tvisebebi. aqedan moyolebuli ufro intensiuria cnobebi iaponuri medicinis taobaze. medicinis shesaxeb mogivtxrobs “nihongic”. 808 cels sheiqmna samedicino enciklopedia, romelshic aghcerilia nemsis chxvletot, mocvit, ctlit da balaxebit kmkurnalobis iaponuri metodebi. ert-erti udzvelesi metodia cxeli ctaroebit mkurnaloba, rac dghesac fartod ari gavrcelebuli iaponiashi. mravali ascleulis ganmavlobashi iaponelebi iyeneben koreuli da chinuri medicinis umdidres gamocdilebas.

heianis epoqis titqmis bolomde (XII s-is shua clebamde) sasaxlis karze umaghlesi safexurebi ekavat fujivaras gvaris carmomadgenleb (dainagoni, chionagoni). tu imperatori arasrulclovani iyo, praqtikulad isini ganagebdnen qveyanas, flobdnen samemkvidro mamulebs. dedoflebic, umetesad fujivaras gvaridan iyvnen. imperators deda da ert-erti bebia an papa titqmis yoveltvis fujivara hyavda. am gvaris aghzevebis epoqa (fujivara jidai) gaigivebulia iaponur renesanstan. 1156 clidan shiogunatis (samxedro mmartveloba) dadgomamde fujivarebs mmartveloba gairas gvarma chamoartva

taira feodaluri dinastia X-XII saukuneebshi dziritadad imdroundeli iaponiis samxret-dasavlet raionebs flobda, xolo 1156 clidan, kiomori tairas (1118-1181 cc.) dros, faqtobrivad, qveyanas martavda. XII s-is bolos brdzola hqonda aghmosavletis feodalebis jguftan, romelsac sataveshi edga minamotos dinastia. 1185 cels mat tairas dinastia gaanadgures. minamotos dinsatiam satave daudo shiogunebis mmartvelobas (shiogunati).



literatura
shua saukuneebshi iaponia did sulier-kulturul da socialur politikur aghmavlobas ganocdis. am periods klasikur xanasac ucodeben. ekonomikastan ertad vitardeba religia, filosofia, literatura. adreuli shua saukuneebis epoqis poeturi zhanris – tankas gverdit IX – XII ss-shi tradiciuli iaponuri religiis, shintoizmisa da dzenbudizmis gavlenit xelovnebashi yalibdeba etetikuri kategoria “mono no avara” anu “saganta sevdiani momxibvleloba”. am mimartulebas laitmotivad gasdebs realobis emociuri aghqmis principebi, romelmac udidesi gavlena iqonia shemdgomi periodebi mtel iaponur xelovnebaze, ferceraze, xurotmodzghvrebasa tu literaturaze.


“kojiki”, iaponuri literaturis udzvelesi dzegli, sasaxlis karze moghvace o-no iasumaros 712 cels chauceria. es aris kosmogoniur-gmiruli mitebis da istoriuli tqmulebebis krebuli, romelsac ertvis chamceris cinasityvaoba. igi sami nacilisgan shedgeba: pirveli – kosmogoniuri tqmulebebi; meore – ambebi meitur imperatorebze da mesame – ambebi istoriul imperatorebze. bolo chanaceri imperator qals, suikos (592-628 cc.) exeba. teqsti sheicavs iamrav leqssa da simgheras romlebic umtavresad imperatoris dzalauflebis ganmtkicebas emsaxureba.

VIII s-idan iaponuri literatura orientirebulia istoriuli zhanris txzulebebis sheqmnaze. istoriuli qronikebidan gansakutrebit mnishvnelovania “nihongi” (720 c.), romlis shedgenashi aqtiurad monacileobda imdroindeli saimperatoro karis saxelmcifo moghvace t. fijuvara. “nihongi”, anu “nihon shioki” – iaponuri analebi – 30 tomisagan shedgeba. aq motxrobil ambebs mitebshi aghcerili periodidan ukanasknel istoriul movlenebamde movyavart. damatebit tomshi mocemulia imperatorta genealogia. qronikebi mdidaria mitebit, realuri istoriuli masalebit, fartod aris gamoyenebuli chinuri da koreuli cyaroebi.

“fudoki” VIII saukunis cerilobiti dzeglia, romelshic mocemulia iaponiis provinciebis istoriul-geografiuli aghceriloba. chvenamde moghceulia mxolod xuti aghceriloba., romlebshic shesulia provinciebis adgilmdebareoba, tobonimebi, iaponuri adat-cesebi, folkloruli chanacerebi, cnobebi iaponur florasa da faunaze.

“manioshiu” am cignis satauri itargmneba, rogorc “utvalavi fotlis nakrebi” an “mravali saukunis simgherebis krebuli”. igi VIII s-is pirveli iaponuri poeturi antologiaa, romelic 20 nacilisagan shedgeba. sheicavs 4500 leqssa da simgheras, romlebic otxi saukunis ganmavlobashi grovdeboda. aq gvxvdeba sasiyvarulo da peizazhuri lirika, baladebi xalxur gadmocemebze, odebi, elegiebi, leqsebi socialur temebze da sxv. fartod aris carmodgenili VIII s-is poetebis – kikinoto hitomaros, amabes, kakhitos, iamanoe okuras, otomo tabitos, iakamochis da sxvebis shemoqmedeba. leqsebis umetesoba tankas formisaa, magram gvxvdeba sxva formebic – nagauta (grdzeli simghera) da sedoka. antologiashi zepirsityvierebis nimushebi naklebad aris shesuli.

poeturi antologia “kokinshiu” shedgeba 20 gragnilisgan (20 nacili, 1100 leqsi). dalagebuli temebis mixedvit. 6 gragnili sheicavs leqsebs celicadis droebis shesaxeb, 5 – leqsebs siyvarulze, 1 – mogzauroba-xetialze da sxv. angologiis avtori-shemdgeneli ki-no curaiuki. is aris iaponuri literaturis istoriashi pirveli cinasityvaobis avtoric, romelic cin udzghvis am antologis. “kokinshiu” shedgenilia 922 cels.

shua saukuneebshi mteli sisrulit gamovlinda iaponuri poeziisa da prozis sisadave da didebuleba. amperiodshi moghvaceobda mravali gamochenili shemoqmedi.

arivara–no narihara (825–880 cc.) uflisculi iyo. cerda tankas zhanris nacarmoebebs. gantqmuli sasiyvarulo lirikit. misi bevri tanka shesulia sxvadasxva antologiashi. daculia nariharas leqsebis krebuli “arivara–asonshiu”. misi garegnoba da tavgadasavali aghcerili “ise–monogatarshi”, romlis savaraudo avtori tvit arivara–no nariharaa.

poeti ki–no curaiuki (859–946 cc.) cerda tankas zhanris leqsebs. msaxurobda saimperatoro karze. chvenamde moaghcia misma 44 leqsma. is aris pirveli iaponuri poeturi antologiis “kokinshius” shemdgeneli, iaponuri poiziis pirveli kritikosi da teoretikosi. man antologias carumdzghvara cinasityvaoba, sadac mxatvruli sityvis rolsa da azrze msjelobs. masve ekutvnis lirikuli zhanris nacarmoebi “mgzavris chanacerebi tosaidan” (936 c.), romelshic mocemulia bunebis aghcerac. ki–no curaiuki iaponur poeziashi lirikuli zhanris damidznebelia,

heianis epoqis, X s-is ert-erti udidesi mcerali qalia sei shionagoni. daibada ganatlebul ojaxshi, kargad sheiscavla iaponuri da chinuri literatura, am xalxebis kultura. msaxurobda imperatoris karze da axlos iyo imperatoris ojaxtan. sicocxle daasrola, rogorc budistma monazonma. mas ekutvnis eseebis krebuli “makurano sooshi” – “sastumaldze sheqmnili chanacerebi”. misi prozauli da poeturi nacarmoebebi shesulia sxvadasxva antologiashi.

udidesi mcerali qali murasaki shikibu (978-1012 cc.) ert-erti provinciis mmartvelis qalishvili iyo. msaxurobda fujivaris sasaxlis karze, iyo ert-erti dedoflis mascavlebeli da sasaxlis sefeqali. mas ekutvnis iaponuri literaturis mcvervalada aghiarebuli “genji monogatari” (genjis ambavi). nacarmoebi 54 tavisgan shedgeba da mogvitxrobs ufliscul genjis tavgadasavals. avtors ertnairad ghrmad esmis musika, poezia, mxatvroba, filosofia da sxv. nacarmoebi dghemde inarchunebs ert-ert sapatio adgils msoflio literaturashi.
murasaki shikibus shemoqmedebam didi gavlena moaxdina ara marto heianis epoqis, aramed mtel shemdgom oaponur literaturaze.

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ilia. » 23 სექ 10, 16:07:22

kruzenshternis diplomatias ar gaumarTla iaponiashi. iaponiam uari ganacxada ruseTTan savaWro urTierTobaze. isini mxolod holandielebs adzlevdnen uflebas vaWrobis uflebas erTaderT portshi, nagasakshi. iaponiam saerTashoriso urTierTobebi mxolod gasul saukuneshi daiwyo. manamde ki europelTaTvis ucnobi iyo radgan iaponelebi kundzulebTan miaxloebis uflebas aravis aniWebdnen da specialurad adgendnen araswor rukebs raTa ucxoelebi daebniaT.

ilia.
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Gone passato » 16 ოქტ 10, 19:40:59





Himni

iaponia (日本 nihon an nipon), oficialurad iaponiis saxelmcifo (日本国nipon-koku (?·i) an nihon-koku) — kundzulovani saxelmcifo aghmosavlet aziashi. mdebareobs cynar okeaneshi, iaponiis zghvis aghmosavletit. esazghvreba chinetis saxalxo respublikas, chrdiloet da samxret koreasa da rusetis federacias. iaponiis originaluri saxelcodebis zusti qartuli targmania „mzis samshoblo“ .
iaponia 6,852 kundzulisgan shemdgari arqipelagia. iaponiis otxi udidesi kundzulia honsiu, hokaido, kiusiu da sikoku, romlebic ertoblivad qveynis teritoriis 97%–s sheadgenen. kundzulta umravlesobas gaachnia mtiani reliefi mravali vulkanit; magalitistvis, iaponiis udidesi mcvervali, mta fudzi vulkania. mosaxleobis mixedvit iaponias msoflioshi mexute adgili ukavia. aq 127 milioni adamiani cxovrobs. didi tokio, romlis shemadgenlobashi shedis aseve qveynis de faqto dedaqaalaqi tokio da mis irgvliv mdebare ramdenime prefeqtura, sadac 30 milionze meti adamiani cxovrobs, dedamicis udidesi qalaqia.
arqeologiuri gamokvlevebis safudzvelze dadgenilia, rom adamiani iaponiis kundzulebze jer kidev zemo paleolitis periodshi saxlobda. iaponia pirvelad moxseniebulia ch. c. I saukunit datarighebul chinur teqstshi. iaponiis istoria xasiatdeba tvitizolaciis grdzeli periodit, romelmac shecvala ucxo qveynebis mier iaponiaze dzlieri gavlenis periodi. iaponiis konstituciam, romelic mighebuli iqna 1947 cels, gamoacxada, rom iaponia iqneboda unitaruli konstituciuri monarqia imperatorita da archeviti parlamentit.
msoflios ert-erti camyvan ekonomikur dzalas, iaponias msoflioshi sididt meore ekonomika aqvs mtliani shida produqtis mixedvit da mesame — msyidvelobiti unaris paritetis mixedvit. garda amisa, iaponia aris ertaderti aziuri qveyana did rvianshi da gaeros ushishroebi sabჭos aramudmivi cevri. miuxedavad imisa, rom iaponiam oficialurad uaryo omis carmoebis shesadzlebloba, mas gaachnia dzlieri da tanamedrove jari, romelic gamoiyeneba tavdacvisa da samshvidobo operaciebisatvis. amomavali mzis qveyana aris ganvitarebuli saxelmcifo cxovrebisi maghali standartit. iaponelebis sicocxlis sashualo xangrdzlivoba msoflioshi yvelaze grdzelia.










etimologia


qveynis qartuli saxelcodeba „iaponia“ aris ekzonimi, romelic qartulshi rusuli enis gavlenitaa damkvidrebuli (tviton rusuli sityva Япония germanuli enidan momdinareobs - germ. Japan), tumca vokalurad ufro frangul Japon-s hgavs.
iaponelebi sakutar qveyanas „nipon“–s an „nihon“–s ucodeben. orive varianti icereba kandzis meshveobit — 日本. pirveli varianti qveynis saxelcodebis oficialuri formaa, saxelcodeba „nihon“ ufro saxalxo terminia. tviton iaponelebi sakutar tavs nihondzin–s (iapon. 日本人?) ucodeben, xolo enas — nihongo–s (iapon. 日本語?). saxelmcifos oficialuri saxelia „nihon koku“ an „nipon koku“ (iapon. 日本国?).
„nihon“ pirdapiri targmanit nishnavs „mzis samshoblos“, aseve xshirad targmnian, rogorc „amomavali mzis qveyanas“. ase ixsenieben iaponias chinelebi iaponiis imperatorisa da chinuri dinastia suistan mimocerashi, radganac iaponia chinetis aghmosavletit mdebareobs. manam, sanam iaponelebma sakutar qveyanas „nihon“ ucodes, gavrcelebuli iyo saxelcodebebi va (iapon. 倭?) an vagoku (iapon. 倭国?).






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Gone passato » 17 მარ 11, 23:06:25

50 naklebad cnobili faqti iaponiaze.
1. iaponiashi cminda valentinis dghes, mamakacebi qalebisadmi tavis simpatias avlenen da sachuqrebs chuqnian. es tradicia dghes umnishvnelovanes socialur funqcias asrulebs : gogonebs sashualeba aqvt, ar daelodnon imas, vidre mamakacebi simamaces gamoavlenen da mattan urtiertobaze tanxmobis tqvan.
2. iaponiashi dzalian iafia tevzi da xorci, magram dzalian dzviri ghirs xili. erti vashli ori dolari ghirs. bananis shekvris fasi 5 dolaria. yvelaze dzviradghirebuli xili nesvia. rusetshi gavrcelebuli e.c. `torpedos~ jishis erti nesvi tokioshi 200 dolari dajdeba.
3. iaponiashi pornografiuli masalebi absoluturad yvelgan iyideba. nebismier produqtebis maghaziashi, presis gavrcelebis adgilze aris taro pornografiuli, anu xentais masalebisatvis. cignis nebismier patara maghaziashi xentai mteli asortimentis ert mesameds sheadgens. cignebis did maghaziashi pornografiuli masalebisatvis 2-3 sartulia gamoyofili.
4. nebadartulia xentais arasrulclovanebisatvis miyidva.
5. xentais ori yvelaze popularuli zhanria _ dzaladoba da arasrulclovanebtan seqsi.
6. cina gverds gadafurclaven da xentais metroshi tavisuflad kitxuloben.
7. iaponiis metroshi aris vagonebi marto qalebisatvis. am vagonebs dziritad shemadgenlobas dilaobit abamen, rom pikis saatebshi qalebi daicvan mamakacebisagan. iaponuri vuaristeboba, anu gadaჭedil metroshi qalebis chqmeta, taviseburi nacionaluri sportia.
8. amastan, iaponias dzaladobisa da gaupatiurebis tvalsazrisit, msoflioshi yvelaze dabali machvenebeli aqvs. es monacemi rusettan mimartebashi 5-jer naklebia. amis tqma aucileblad chavtvale yvelafer imis shemdeg, rac xentaistan dakavshirebit vtqvi.
9. iaponuri ieroglifebis umravlesoba 2-4 marcvlisagan shedgeba. magram aris ucnauri gamonaklisebi, roca erti ieroglifi 30 marcvlisagan shedgeba.
10. iaponiashi politikashi ghirsebis sakitxs kvlavindeburad centraluri adgili uჭiravs. ukanaskneli premier-ministri imis gamo gadadga, rom cinasaarchevno dapirebebi ver sheasrula. imave mizezit gadadga misi ori cinamorbedic.
11. iaponia patara qveyanaa, magram aq dzalian bevri ramaa yvelaze didi. aq aris msoflioshi gartobis yvelaze didi Disney Sea-s parki, atidan otxi yvelaze didi amerikuli mta. tokioshi arsebobs msoflioshi yvelaze ganvitarebuli metro. aseve, yvelaze didi rkinigzis xazi da yvelaze didi shereuli gzajvaredinis gadasasvleli.
12. tovlis babuas iaponiashi ori gundisgan da ara samisagan dzercen, rogorc amas danarchen msoflioshi aketeben..
13. polkovniki sandersi iaponiashi shobis yvelaze mtavari simboloa, rogorc ashsh-shi koka-kola. shobis dghesascaulze iaponelebs uyvart mteli ojaxit kafeshi casvla da didi qatmis frtebis mirtmeva.
14. iaponiashi dghemde qorcilebis 30%-i mshoblebis mier organizebuli garigebit ( e.c. omiai-it) xdeba.
15. iaponiis yvela chrdiloet qalaqshi, sadac zamtarshi tovli modis atboben trotuarebs da gzebs. gzaze ar yinvebia da arc tovlia asaghebi da gasacmendi.
16. amastan, iaponiashi ar arsebobs centraluri gatbobis sistema. yvela binas ise atbobs, rogorc sheudzlia.
17. iaponur enashi aris sityva "karoshi", rac gadaghlisagan sikvdils nishnavs. sashualod iaponiashi yovelcliurad am diagnozit 10 atasi adamiani kvdeba. studia `gibli~-is rezhisori esifumi kondo am diagnozit gardaicvala.
18. iaponiashi tambaqos mocevis shesaxeb ert erti yvelaze liberaluri kanonia. moceva sheidzleba yvelgan, garda rkinigzis sadguris platformisa da aeroportshi.
19. iaponia msoflioshi ukanaskneli qveyanaa, romelic imperiis statuss formalurad inarchunebs.
20. iaponuri saimperatoro dinastia arasdros ar shecyvetila. dghevandeli imperatori akixito pirveli imperatoris, dzimus pirdapiri memkvidrea, romelmac dinastiis garda, iaponias safudzveli dzveli celtaghricxvis 711 cels daarsa.
21. cels iaponias 2671 celi sheusrulda.
22. iaponelebi saჭmelze xshirad subroben, rodesac ჭamen, saubroben imaze tu rogor moscont mat mortmeuli. ჭamis shemdeg sityva "oishii", gemrielias ramdenjerme ar tqma, uzrdelobad miichneva.
23. saertod, iaponelebs uyvart ganmeoreba. rodesac amas gogonebi aketeben, es muxanatobad itvleba.
24. iaponur enashi ertdroulad ceris sami tipi gamoiyeneba. xiragana (iaponuri sityvebis marcvlebit dacera) katakana (araiaponuri sityvebis marcvlebit daceris sistema) da kanji ( ierografiuli cera)
25. iaponiashi ar arian gasterabaiterebi. amis mighceva shesadzlebeli gaxda kanonit – sazghvargaretidan chamosuli mushis xelfasi iaponelis sashualo xelfass aghemateba. amit, maghalkvalificiuri specialistebisatvis qveyanashi gza xsnilia, magram arakvalificiuri chamosuli adgilobrivebis xelfass konkurencias ver ucevs.
26. iaponiashi rkinigzis naxevarze meti kerdzoa. arasaxelmcifo gadamzidavebs sarkinigzo tvirtebis 68% gadaaqvt.
27. xiroxitom, romelic qveyanas meore msoflio omis shemdeg martavda, reformebi ganaxorciela. is aravis ar gadauyenebia da igi qveyanas 1989 clamde martavda. xiroxitos dabadebis dghe nacionaluri dghesascaulia da yoveli clis 29 aprils aghinishneba.
28. fujis mta kerdzo mflobelobashia. sintais tadzaris xongiu sengenshi shemorchenilia 1609 clit datarirebuli nachuqrobis damadasturebeli dokumenti, romlitac dasturdeba, rom xegunma mta tadzars mflobelobashi gadasca. 1974 cels iaponiis umaghlesma sasamartlom daadastura mtis nachuqroba. xelisuflebas sxva gza ar hqonda mta tadzristvis ar gadaeca. iaponiashi sakutrebis ufleba xelsheuxebelia.
29. iaponuri ena ramodenime donis tavazianobisagan shedgeba _ sasaubro, xazgasmulad tavaziani, tavaziani da dzalian tavaziani. qalbatonebi praqtikulad yoveltvis xazgasmulad tavaziani formit saubroben. mamakacebi ki, umetes cilad, sasaubro enit sargebloben.
30. iaponiis mosaxleobis mamakacta 7% xikimokoria. es termini nishnavs mozardsa da axalgazrdas, romelic socialur cxovrebaze uars ambobs, izolaciisa da ganmartoebisaken sxvadasxva piraduli xasiatis socialuri faqtorebis gamo miiltvis.
31. iaponur enashi tveebs ara aqvt saxeli. amis nacvlad isini tveebs nomrit moixsenieben. magalitad, seqtembers "kucagu" hqvia, rac mecxres nishnavs.
32. mas shemdeg, rac iaponia dasavletisatvis gaixsna, ertaderti sityva romantikuli simpatiis aghcerisatvis iyo sityva "koi", rac raghac miucvdomelisadmi gadaulaxav ltolvas nishnavs.
33. iaponia monoetnuikuri qveyanaa. mosaxleobis 98%-s iaponelebi sheadgenen.
34. iaponiashi msjavrdebulebs archevnebze ara aqvt xmis micemis ufleba.
35. iaponiashi delfinebs ჭamen. delfinis xorcisagan aketeben sups, amzadeben kusiakebs(iaponur mcvads) da tanac yveltan ertad miirtmeven. deflfinis xorci sakmaod gemrielia da specipikuri gemo aqvs da sulac ara hgavs tevzis xorcs.
36. iaponur enashi praqtikulad ar aris piradi nacvalsaxelebi da is sityvebi, romlebic xandaxan gamoiyeneba rogorc piradi nacvalsaxelebi, rogorc minimum kidev mnishvneloba aqvt. iaponuri sityva vatashi, anu, me, kidev nishnavs `kerdzos~, `pirads, ~anata" – "tqven" – "msaxurs". "anata" zrdilobianad mxolod pirvelad gacnobis dros ixmareba, shemdeg mighebulia mosaubres mimarto saxelit an tanamdebobit.
37. tokio msoflioshi yvelaze usafrtxo megapolisia. tokio imdenad usafrtxoa, rom 6 clis bavshvebs sheudzliat damoukideblad isargeblon sazogadoebrivi transportit. sinamdvileshi es fantastikaa.
38. iaponelebi gare samyaros dzalian saxifatod miichneven da mogzaurobis eshiniat. iaponelebi yvelaze saxifato qveynad ashsh-s miichneven.
39. iaponiis konstituciis me-9 muxli qveyanas ukrdzalavs hyavdes tavis jari da monacileoba miighos omebshi.
40. iaponiashi sascavlo celi 1 aprils icyeba da sascavlo celi trimetrebad iyofa. skolis moscavleebi scavloben aprilidan ivnisamde, shemdeg seqtembridan dekembramde da shemdeg ianvridan martamde.
41. iaponiashi ar aris nagvis yutebi. mteli nagavi mushavdeba. nagavi iyofa otx saxeobad _ shusha, dacvadi, gadasamushavebeli da dacvadi nagavi. nagvis tvitoeuli saxeoba garkveul dgheebshi gaaqvt da mati gadagdeba shesadzlebelia mxolod cinascar gansazghrul ricxvebshi. proceduris darghvevis shemtxvevashi, moqalaqe dzalian didi jarima ekisreba. saxlshi, romelshic me vcxovrob, jarima asi atas iens, daaxloebit 1000 ashsh dolars sheadgens.
42. quchashi nagvis yutebi ar aris. aris mxolod botlebis shegrovebisatvis specialuri yutebi.
43. iaponiashi dzalian dabali pensiebia. daxmarebis saჭoroebis mqone moxucebisatvis socialuri daxmarebis odenoba 30 atas iens sheadgens, rac daaxloebit 300 ashsh dolaris eqvivalenturia. qveyanashi ar aris aucilebeli sapensio dazghveva. miichneva, rom tvitoeulma iaponelma tavd unda izrunos tavis moxucebulobaze.
44. iaponur enashi sityva "goddzira" shemtxveviti araa. es sityva chinur `gorila~ da `kuddziras~ nishnavs. savaraudod, mati shejvarebit gamovida reptilia.
45. iaponiashi dzalian dzviri ghirs transportit mgzavroba. metroshi yvelaze iafi biletis fasi 140 ieni, titqmis ori ashsh dilari ghirs.
46. iaponiashi yoveltvis pirvelad emsaxurebian mamakacebs. restoranshi shekvetas pirvelad yoveltvis mamakaci ukvetavs da sasmelic pirvelad mistvis miaqvt.
47. iaponelebi dzalian did manqanebs atareben. sheudzlebelia siti qari ar shegxvdet umჭidroes tokioshi. samagierod dzalian bevria jipebi.
48. rac iaponiashi var, ar minaxavs tualeti, romelsac 10 ghilakze naklebi hqondes. amas cinat saxlis tualetshi armovachine, rom ert erti ghilaki gamoscems xmas, romelic sakutar xmebs faravs.
49. iaponiashi yvelam icis, rom Hello Kitty inglisidanaa.
50. iaponiashi cvrilmani gasamrjelos migheba an gacema kategoriulad miughebelia. miichneva, rom vidre klienti dacesebul fass ixdis, igi gamyidveltan mimartebashi tanascori rcheba, tu myidveli zedmeti fulis datovebas cdilobs, igi amit mistvis gaceul momsaxurebas aufasurebs.
51. erti celia iaponiashi vcxovrob da rasizmis gamovlinebis arc ert shemtxvevas ertxelac ar shevxvedrivar.
52. iaponia msoflios sauketeso qveyanaa.







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