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ZUZUKELA » 11 ივლ 09, 11:51:15

Aq davdebt informacias msoflios gamochenil mwerlebze,mat cxovrebaze,shemoqmedebaze da a.sh. Xo tu aqvt raime frtiani frazebi ar dagvaviwydes. sheudzlia dagvexmaros yvela forumeli,magram motxovna mkacria,informacia unda iyos sakmaod amomwuravi.

ZUZUKELA
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mea » 11 ივლ 09, 12:55:57

Onore de balzaki(1799-1850)
Franguli da amastanave mteli dasavletevropuli realisturi romanis udidesi ostati.
Balzaki daibada samxret safrangetis qalaq turshi.misi mama bernar-fransua balsa warmoshobit mojamagire glexis shvili iyo,shemdeg,roca moxele da finansisti gaxda gamdidrda,gvari gamoicvala da balzakad gadaaketa.
Xuti wlis balzaki dawyebit skolashi sheiyvanes,shemdeg ki vandomis iezuitur kolejshi.
1814 wels misi ojaxi parizshi gadasaxlda,balzakma swavla ganagrzo sorbonis universitetshi.
Balzaki gatacebuli iyo mdidari poloneli tavadis qalit-evelina hanskati,romelic 1850 wels colad sheirto.
Balzakis pirveli nawarmoebia "kromveli",romelic susti agmochnda.man guli ar gaitexa da gamoaqveyna romanebi sxvadasxva psevdonimit,magram es nawarmoebebi nachqarevi da zerele iyo.
Pirveli tvalsachino,mxatvruli nawarmoebi,romelmac balzaks gamarjveba moutana,iyo istoriuli romani "shuanebi,anu bretani 1799 wels".nawarmoebs sapuzvlad udevs bretoneli glexebis(e.w."shuanebis")ajanyeba.mwerali gadmogvcems vandeelta kontrrevoluciur brzolas respublikelebis winaagmdeg.
1834 wels balzakma gadawyvita daewera restavraciisa da ivlisis monarqiis epoqis "safrangetis sazogadoebis istoria".am mxatvrul epopeas balzakma shemdeg daarqva "adamianuri komedia",es komedia burjuaziuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis enciklopediaa,dayopilia sam nawilad.Pirveli nawili-"etiudebi zne-chveulebata shesaxeb"shedgeba romanebis eqvsi seriisagan.
Pirveli seria-scenebi kerzo cxovrebidan:
"Gobseki"
"Ocdaati wlis qali"
"Saqorwin xelshekruleba"
"Beatrisa"
"Modest minioni"
"Mama gorio"
Meore seria-scenebi provinciuli cxovrebidan:
"Ejeni grande"
"Parizelebi provinciashi"
"Gamqrali ocnebani"
Mesame seria-scenebi parizis cxovrebidan:
"Cezar birotos didebisa da dacemis istoria"
"Nusinjenis saxli"
"Pier grasu"
"Kurtizanta brwyinvaleba da sigatake"
"Garibi natesavebi"
Meotxe seria-scenebi politikuri cxovrebidan:
"Epizodi teroris droidan"
"Bneli saqme"
Mexute seria-scenebi samxedro cxovrebidan:
"Shuanebi"
"Vneba udabnoshi"...
Meeqvse seria-scenebi soplis cxovrebidan:
"soplis eqimi"
"soplis mgvdeli"
"glexebi"
Meore nawili-"pilosopiuri etiudebi"sheicavs romanebs:
"shargenis tyavi"
"ucxo shedevri"
"absolutis zieba"
Mesame nawili-"analitikuri etiudebi" warmodgenilia mxolod erti nawarmoebit "Qorwinebis fiziologia"
Balzakis shemoqmedebashi sheinishneba qartuli tematika.mwerali agrovebda da swavlobda masalebs saqartvelosa da qartveli xalxis shesaxeb.Man specialuri romani sheqmna qartvel qalze-"Oqrospertvaleba qalishvili",romelic dawera 1834-1835 wlebshi.

mea
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mea » 11 ივლ 09, 20:29:58

Viqtor Hiugo(1802-1885) daibada safrangetshi qalaq bezansonshi,misi mama napoleon I-is armiis generali iyo.viqtorma moiara samxret safrangeti,italia da espaneti,korsikisa da elbas kunzulebi.Hiugos deda katolike da monarqisti iyo.
Shemoqmedebit mushaoba hiugom daiwyo 14wlis asakidan.1820 wels man gamosca "odebi",1827 wels "odebi da baladebi".amave periods miekutvneba adrindeli prozauli nawarmoebebi "han islandieli","biug jargali"
1827 wels hiugom gamosca drama"oliver kromveli",romlis winasityvaoba axali skolis-romantizmis-manifestad gadaiqca.
1829 wels hiugom gamoaqveyna motxroba "sikvdilmisjilis ukanaskneli dge"
30-ian wlebshi hiugom gamosca leqsta krebulebi:"agmosavluri hangebi","shemodgomis potlebi",romantikuli xasiatis nawarmoebi-"Parizis gvtismshoblis tazari",istoriuli xasiatis dramebi:"marion de lormi","ernani","mepe ertoba"
1852 wels hiugom dawera pamfleti"patara napoleoni".ase uwoda poetma napoleon III.
Daaxlovebit 20wlis ganmavlobashi gandevnashi myopma hiugom dawera tavisi sauketeso txzulebebi:"sabraloni","zgvis mashvralni","kaci,romelic icinis"
1871wels hiugom gamoamjgavna tanagrznob parizis komunarebisadmi.parizis komunis dgeebtan dakavshirebit poetma dawera leqsebis krebuli"sashineli weli"-patriotuli grznobebit agsavse wigni.
Hiugos ar sheuwyvetia brzola monarqistebis winaagmdeg.am brzolis suliskvetebit man dawera "otxmocdacameti weli"(1874),am wigns mohyva antiklerikaluri poema "papa"(1882) da mzafri pafleti "umaglesi lmobiereba"(1879)es pamfleti hiugom mimarta "mefeebisa da xelmwifeebis"batonobis winaagmdeg.
Didia hiugos mnishvneloba teatris istoriisatvis.hiugom romelic upro adre tviton werda klasicisturi yaidis leqsebs,shearyia klasicisturi tragediis principebi da mas daukavshira romantikuli drama.dramis sakutari teoria poetma chamoayaliba "kromvelis"winasityvaobashi(1827)
Safrangetis tebervlis revoluciis dgeebshi viqtor hiugo ertdroulad mushaobs or wignze-"shuriszieba" da "patara napoleoni"
Hiugos meore didi romani"sabraloni" iwereboda oci wlis ganmavlobashi,im dros,roca saprangetshi,da saertod evropashi adgili hqonda did socialur-politikur movlenebs.Romanis winasityvaobashi hiugo ambobs:"vidre kanonebisa da zne-chveulebata zalit iarsebebs socialuri wyevla,romelic civilizaciis dros xelovnurad qmnis jojoxets da gmertze damokidebuli adamianebis beds amzimebs sabediswero xvedrit;vidre iarsebebs chveni saukunis sami ziritadi problema-damcireba mamakacisa imis gamo,rom proletaruli klasis warmomadgenelia,qalis dacema shimshilis mizezit,bavshvis dazabuneba umecrebis wyalobit;vidre dedamiwis zurgze ucodinroba da gachirveba arsebobs,sheizleba urigo ar iyos iseti wignebi,rogoric esaa"

mea
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mea » 13 ივლ 09, 1:01:23

Uiliam meiqfis Tekerei (1811-1863) inglisuri kritikuli realizmis udidesi warmomadgenili.daibada kalkutashi.magram mamis gardacvalebis shemdeg,eqvsi wlis asakshi saswavleblad inglishi gaagzavnes.tekerei jer skolashi swavlobda,shemdeg kembrijis universitetshi.
Tavdapirvelad tekereis undoda mxatvari gamxdariyo,mxatvruli xedva misi literaturuli saqmianobis organuli nawili iyo,mis mier shesrulebuli ilustraciebi gmiris daxasiatebasa da avtoriseul chanapiqrs avsebs.
Tekereim literaturuli mogvaweoba adre daiwyo,misi pirveli nawarmoebi jer kidev swavlis periodshi sheiqmna.irlandiashi mogzaurobis shemdeg "irlandiuri narkvevebis wignshi" agwers irlandieli xalxis cxovrebis surats.
Parodia"lurjwveras suli" mimartulia romantizmisatvis damaxasiatebeli zgapruli tematikit gatacebis winaagmdeg.
Tekerei gansakutrebit mkvetrad gamodis tanamedrove literaturashi romantikuli tendenciebis agorzinebis winaagmdeg.tavis nawarmoebshi"gamochenili avtorebis romanebi" sxvebtan ertad igi qmnis dizraelisa da bulveris nawarmoebta parodias.
Polemikuri xasiatisaa tekereis pirveli romani "bari lindonis kariera(1844).masshi xazgasmulia rom mwerali valdebulia cxovreba isetnairad uchvenos,rogoric aris da ar gamoiyenos wignebshi iseti personajebi,romlebic arasodes arsebobdnen da arc sheezlot earsebat.
Tavisi shemoqmedebis dasawyishive tekereis ashpotebs magali klasebis ampartavnoba.es tema mocemulia "ieloplashis chanawerebshi"(1837-3,romelic satiruli motxrobebis serias warmoadgens.
Fulis damangreveli zalis gavlenas dascinis mwerali nawarmoebshi"semuel titmarshisa da hogartis didi almasis istoria"(1841)
"snobebis wigns" ar gaachnia ertiani fabula da narkvevebis serias warmoadgens,es narkvevebi ertiani satiruli chanafiqritaa gaertianebuli.
Snobizmi artmevs adamians siyvarulsa da megobrobis grznobas."tu tqven araprad agdebt tqvens axloblebs da iviwyebt megobrebs titulovan pirebtan siaxlovis ziebisas,tqven snobi xart.Tu tqven grcxveniat tqveni sigaribisa da patiosani shromisa,tqven isetive snobi xart,rogorc kaci,romelic simdidrita da magali warmoshobit trabaxobs"-ambobs tekerei.
Shemoqmedebiti ganvitarebis mwvervals tekerei agwevs romanshi"amaoebis bazari".wignis satauri nasesxebia XVII saukunis alegoriuli romanidan"mwiris gza".misi avtori iyo jon beniani.
Momdevno wlebshi tekerei wers kidev axal wignebs,romlebshic grma realizmit asaxavs tanamedrove epoqas:
"pendenisis istoria"(1848-50)
"niukomebi.uagresad respeqtabeluri ojaxis chanawerebi"(1853-55)
"otxi jorji"
"Henri esmondis istoria"
"virjinielebi"(1857-59)
"Filipis tavgadasavali"
"Deni diuvali"
Inglisuri literaturis istoriashi tekerei shevida rogorc didi realisti satirikosi,mravali shesanishnavi nawarmoebis avtori,romeltagan sauketesoa "amaoebis bazari".

mea
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mea » 13 ივლ 09, 2:12:22

SEMIUEL TEILOR KOLRIJI(1772-1834).Romantizmis ganvitarebis pirvel etapze uagresad saintereso figuras warmoadgens.igi xasiatdeboda fsiqologiuri dakvirvebis sigrmit,tragikulobis shegrznebit da fantastikurobisadmi miswrapebit.
Kolriji winaagmdegobebit agsavse poeti iyo.erti mxrit,misi shemoqmedeba xasiatdeba novatoruli ideebit,xolo meore mxrit,igi cxovrebastan chidils gaurbis.
Jer kidev kembrijis universitetshi yopnisas kolriji moulodnelad tovebs swavlas da moxalised midis jarshi.shemdeg kvlav kembrijshi brundeba,sadac umegobrdeba poet robert sautis,romeltan ertad,demokratiuli ideebit gatacebis shedegad,ayalibebs gegmas utopiuri sazogadoebis"pantisokratiis"mowyobis shesaxeb.am gegmis mixedvit tormeti axalgazrda col-qmari unda gadasaxlebuliyo amerikashi,sadac unda sheeqmnat idealuri sazogadoeba-tanabaruflebiani da tavisupali moqalaqeebisagan shemdgari.magram am utopiur ideas ganxorcieleba ar ewera.sautim moitxova msaxurebisa da tvit monebis wayvanac ki "shavi"samushaos shesasruleblad,rac kolrijis azrit daushvebeli iyo.sabolood or poets shoris ganxetqileba moxda.
Kolriji aqveynebs politikur jurnals"gushagi".aq igi ilashqrebs mtavrobis antidemokratiuli moqmedebis winaagmdeg,amave dros,safrangetis revoluciis shemdgomi movlenebis ganvitarebam,safrangetis mtaceblurma omebma mezobeli saxelmwifoebis winaagmdeg,kolriji daaechva tvit revoluciis samartlianobashi.am periodis kerzo werilebshi igi agiarebs,rom mis sulshi gaurkvevlobam daisadgura.Aseti ganwyobilebitaa sheqmnili"oda mimavali wlisadmi"(1796).misi am periodis leqsebshi XVII saukunis poet metafizikosta shemoqmedebis shesamchnevi gavlena sheinishneba.
Poeziashi kolrijis shemoqmedebisatvis yvelaze nayofieri iyo XVIII saukunis 90-iani wlebi,rodesac man sheqmna tavisi sauketeso nawarmoebebi.Poemebis saxit "kubla xani"(1797)
"Moxuci mezgvauri(1798)
"kristabeli"
Rogorc tviton werda poeti,nawarmoebi"kubla xani"man zilis dros gaiazra,gamogvizebulma sul mcire nawyvetis gadatana moaswro purceblze.
Calkeul leqsebshi kolrijs shemoaqvs adamianis bunebastan ertianobis romantikuli motivi.warsulisken mibruneba,iracionaluri elementi,zilis zmanebani,buneba-es yvelaperi kolrijs schirdeba imisatvis,rom gamoexata grznoba,romelic tanamedroveobis miugeblobas gulisxmobda.

mea
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mea » 13 ივლ 09, 15:37:38

CHARLZ DIKENSI(1812-1870)
Inglisuri realisturi romanis ganvitarebashi misma shemoqmedebam mteli epoqa sheqmna.
Charlz dikensi daibada lendportshi,portsmutis axlos,navsadguris moxelis ojaxshi.igi ati wlisa iyo,rodesac misi ojaxi londonshi gadasaxlda.charlzi fabrikashi iwyebs mushaobas.mogvianebit am wlebis mogonebebi safuzvlad daedo mis romans "davit koperfildi"(1850)
Charlzma ver miigo sistematuri ganatleba.Ganatlebas dikensi ivsebda wignebis kitxvit da cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebit.man stenografia sheiswavla da gaxda jer sasamartlos,xolo shemdeg parlamentis reportiori.
Dikensis mxatvruli shemoqmedeba patara motxrobebita da narkvevebit daiwyo.
1833 wlis dekembridan igi psevdonimit "bos" aqveynebda tavis nawarmoebebs,romlebsac ertad tavi mouyara da 1836 wels calke wignad gamosca sataurit "bosis narkvevebi".
Narkvevebis krebulma mashinve miipyro yuradgeba londonis cxovrebis saintereso agwerita da mxiaruli iumorit.krebuli sheicavs mtlian motxrobebs,calkeul scenebs da xasiatta chanaxatebs.
amas mohyva "Pikvikis klubis chanawerebi"(1837)
Wignis kompozicia taviseburia.igi iwyeba rogorc epizodebis seria,romelic gaertianebulia "mecnieruli"klubis ideit.
Chartizmis periodis sazogadoebrivi agmavlobis wlebi dikensis shemoqmedebashi kritikul tendenciebs agrmaveben.
"Oliver tvisti"-dan dawyebuli romanidan romanamde sul upro da upro metad ashkaravdeba tanamedroveobis mtkivneuli movlenebi.
60-ian wlebshi dikensis romanebi axal tvisebebs amjgavneben.am dros mwerali naklebs wers da mxolod or romans aqveynebs.esenia "Didi imedebi" da "chveni saerto megobari"
Dikensi gamodis maltusis teoriisa da mis sapuzvelze sheqmnil shromiti saxlebis winaagmdeg."Oliver tvistis tavgadasavalshi"(1838) mtavari gmiri shromit saxlshi ibadeba da iqve atarebs tavis bavshvobas.
Socialuri konfliqtebis warmatebit mogvarebis imeditaa agsavse dikensis shemdegi romani "nikolas niklbi"(1839)mashi aseve zlieria moralisturi tendenciebi.
Samshobloshi dabrunebisas dikensma chamoayaliba tavisi shtabechdilebebi wignshi "amerikuli shenishvnebi"(1842),romelmac amerikuli burjuaziuli presis sheshpoteba gamoiwvia.
Amerikis temas dikensi ubrundeba tavis shemdeg romanshi "Martin chezluiti"(1844)wignis mtavari temaa natesavta brzola mdidari kacis pulis gamo.
Dikenss agelvebda tanamedrove problemebi da xalxis mdgomareoba,magram ar iziarebda chartistta mosazrebebs da uaryopda brzolis revoluciur metodebs.amis sapirispirod igi gamodioda klasobrivi mshvidobis mowodebit da amyarebda imedebs moraluri zegavlenisa da agzrdis zalaze.am tvalsazrisma asaxva pova mis "sashobao motxrobebshi"
Motxrobebshi taviseburadaa shexamebuli nateli realisturi saxeebi da mamxilebeli patosi zgaprul pantastikastan da ojaxu idiliastan.matgan gansakutrebit sainteresoa pirveli ori:"sashobao simgera"(1843)da "zarebi"(1844),romlebshic mwvave socialuri problemebia wamochrili.
Mesame motxrobashi-"chrichina gumelze"(1845)-charbobs saojaxo tematika.
Dikensis shemdgom nawarmoebebshi kidev upro izrdeba mamxilebeli tendenciebi. 1848 wels dikensi aqveynebs romans "dombi da shvili".tavisi kompoziciita da chanapiqrit,es nawarmoebi mwerlis shemoqmedebashi axal movlenas warmoadgens.
Romanshi "civi saxli"(1853)centralur temad agebulia inglisuri sasamartlos mxileba.
Romanshi "mzime droni"(1854) dgas kapitalisa da shromis dapirispirebis problema.
Satiruli romanebis xazs dikensi agrzelebs "cicqna doritshic"(1857)
Istoriuli romani"ori qalaqis ambavi"(1859) aris XVIII saukunis safrangetis revoluciis epoqaze,magram misi idea dakavshirebulia tanamedroveobastan.
60-ian wlebshi sheqmnili mxatvruli nawarmoebi tavisi xasiatit gansxvavdeba adreulisagan.am periods ekutvnis romanebi "didi imedebi"(1861),"chveni saerto megobari"(1865) da daumtavrebeli "edvin drudis saidumloeba"

esec dickensis xelmowera.

mea
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ZUZUKELA » 13 ივლ 09, 16:16:08

+1 Thats grait! tu rame infos vnaxavt sainteresos,chavakvexebt )))) yochag maik!

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mea » 13 ივლ 09, 18:49:26

FRIDRIX SHLEGELI(1772-1829)daibada hanoveris biurgerul ojaxshi.mshoblebis survilis shesabamisad sheudga iurisprudenciis sheswavlas getingenis universitetshi.
Laifcigis universitetshi shlegeli swavlobs klasikur filologiasa da filosofias.
1796 wels igi gadadis ienashi.am periodshi misi nashromebi yuradgebas iqceven.matgan agsanishnavia nashromebi-"berznuli poeziis sheswavlis shesaxeb"(1797)
"cda respublikanizmis cnebis shesaxeb"(1796)
"georg forsteri"(1797)
Fridrix shlegelis nashromebs warmoadgens "kritikuli fragmentebi"(1797) da gansakutrebit,1798 wels gamoqveynebuli "fragmentebi".tavis adrindel nawarmoebebshi shlegeli dgas ganmanatleblobisadmi pozitiuri damokidebulebis niadagze.igi sachirod tvlis yvela qveyanashi respublikuri wyobis damyarebas,agiarebs xalxis uplebas moaxdinos ajanyeba mchagvrelis winaagmdeg,garkveulad ixreba germaniashi arsebuli politikuri wyobis revoluciuri gardaqmnis tvalsazrisisaken.
"Fragmentebshi"gatarebuli koncefciis mxatvruli ilustraciaa romani "Lucinde"(1799)es romani warmoadgens im nimushs,rasac shlegeli uwodebs romantikul ironias,romelsac sapuzvlad udevs obieqtis fixteseburi uaryofa da agiareba mxolod subieqtisa.
1800 wels shlegeli aqveynebs teoriul nashroms "saubari poeziis shesaxeb",romelic otxi narkvevisagan shedgeba.titoeuli nawili warmoadgens monologs filosofiuri diskusiis romelime monawilisa,romelta saxitac avtors ara mxolod tavisi tavi gamohyavs,aramed v.shlegelic,agretve shelingi da shlaiermaxeri.
1801 wels shlegeli miemgzavreba berlinshi.
1802-04 wlebshi igi imyofeba parizshi,sadac swavlobs indur literaturas da sanskrits.
1808 wels ibechdeba misi nashromi-"indoelta enisa da sibrznis shesaxeb",romelshic avtori indoevropul enata natesaobis mtkicebas axdens.
1805 wels ibechdeba shlegelis ukanaskneli periodis mnishvnelovani nashromi-"zveli da axali literatura",romelic avtorma meternixs miuzgvna.
Konservatiulad ganwyobil mwerlad gvevlineba fridrix shlegeli,roca am axal nashromshi romantikulis bunebis shesaxeb laparakobs.romantikuls aigivebs qristianultan da am azrit miichnevs mas axali epoqis dasawyisad literaturashi.am aspeqtshi ixilavs igi sheqspirsa da kalderons.sheqspiri miachnia upro nakleb qristianulad ganwyobil mwerlad,vidre kalderoni.amgvari arsebiti xasiatis naklovanebebis miuxedavad shlegelis "zveli da axali literatura"warmoadgens sayuradgebo nashroms axali drois literaturismcodneobashi.

mea
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    პასუხი ციტირებით

mea » 13 ივლ 09, 23:42:30

JAKOMO LEOPARDI(1798-1837)
Italiuri romantizmis ganvitarebashi gamochenili figura,cnobili lirikosi poeti.
Leopardi qalaq rekanatishi daibada.8 wlis asakidan eupleba evropul da zvel enebs-latinurs berznulsa da zvel ebrauls.
1818 wels ibechdeba misi pirveli leqsebi.misi cxovreba tragikulad warimarta.mas arc bedniereba da arc dideba rgebia.
Poeti ganicdida winaagmdegobas rogorc tavis pirad cxovrebashi,aseve samshoblos bedis gamo.misi piradi cxovreba ukugmartad warimarta.ojaxshi batonobda tedamisi-despoturi bunebis gulcivi qali.ertaderti shveba mistvis kitxva iyo,magram gonebis dazabulobam misi janmrteloba shearyia.mshobliuri saxlidan wasuli,leopardi italiis sxvadasxva qalaqshi cxovrobda.
Leopardis shemoqmedebiti memkvidreoba prozas da poezias moicavs.igi filosofiuri xasiatis nawarmoebebs qmnida,werda xelovnebisa da literaturis sakitxebze.
Traqtatshi "erti italielis azrebi romantikul poeziaze"(1819) igi agfrtovanebulia antikuri poeziis silamazit.
Umagles janrad leopardi poezias miichnevda.tavis leqsebis krebuls man "simgerebi"daarqva.pirvelma leqsma italiisadmi(1818) patriotuli jgeradobit mashinve miipyro mkitxvelta yuradgeba.poeti italiis warsul didebas ugimgamo sinamdviles upirispirebs.
"samshoblov chemo!vxedav
Shens koshkebs,satopureebs,
Kedelt nangrevebs,
Gmirt qandakebas,
Magram ver vxedav,
Imat didebas"
Patriotuli lirikis asetive mwvervals warmoadgens leqsi"dantes zegls"(1818).igi daiwera florenciashi didi poetis zeglis agebastan dakavshirebit.
Leopardi patriotul sakitxs exeba zog iset leqshiac,romelshic pirovnuli sakitxebia wamochrili,magalitad,leqsi "dis,paolinas qorwinebaze"(1821)
Leopardis sevdiani poeziis mwvervalad itvleba misi leqsi "aziashi momtabare mwyemsis gamiseuli simgera"(1830)
Jakomo leopardis leqsebi gonebas ugvizebda,moqmedebisken ubizgebda da samshoblos siyvaruls unergavda italiel xalxs.

mea
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    პასუხი ციტირებით

mea » 14 ივლ 09, 14:06:14

UOLTER SKOTI(1771-1832),didi shotlandieli mwerali,daibada edinburgshi,bavshvobidanve dainteresebuli iyo istoriit,folklorit.ojaxis tradiciisamebr miigo iuridiuli ganatleba,ert xans iuridiul saqmianobasac misdevda.
Skoti gatacebuli iyo germanuli romantikuli literaturit da sheiswavla germanuli ena,misi yuradgeba miibyro baladis janrma.
Man targmna da 1796 wels gamoaqveyna biurgeris ori balada"Leonore" da "veluri monadire"
Xalxuri literaturis siyvarulis shedegi iyo,rom 1802-03 wlebshi skoti aqveynebs "shotlandiis sazgvris simgerebs",romelic warmoadgens sxvadasxva saxis baladebis sam krebuls.
1805 wels gamodis mwerlis pirveli poema"ukanaskneli menestrelis simgera"
Momdevno wlebis ganmavlobashi aqveynebs ramdenime poetur nawarmoebs
"Marmioni"(1808)
"Tbis qalbatoni"(1810)
"Rokbi"(1813)
"Kunzulis meupe"(1815)
1814 wels uolter skoti anonimurad aqveynebs istoriul romans "ueverli" da am xnidan moyolebuli gardacvalebamde mxolod prozaul nawarmoebebs qmnis.
Man dawera ocdaatamde istoriuli romani,ramdenime motxroba,dramatuli nawarmoebebi,samecniero,literaturatmcodneobiti da istoriuli gamokvlevebi,romlebic zalian saintereso masalas sheicavs misi literaturul-mxatvruli saqmianobis gansaxilvelad.matgan mnishvnelovania- "draidenis mogvaweoba"(1808)
"sviftis mogvaweoba"(1814)
"Napoleon bonapartis cxovreba"(1827)
"shotlandiis istoria"(1829-30)
Skotis shemoqmedebashi gamoikveteba ori etapi.pirvel periodshi igi ziritadad qmnis poetur nawarmoebebs,xolo mogvianebit ki istoriul romanebs.
Misi pirvelive nawarmoebi"ukanaskneli menestrelis simgera" sheicavs im elementebs,rac sazogadod damaxasiatebelia uolter skotis shemoqmedebisatvis.
Skotis romanebidan ert-erti sauketesoa "Rob Roi"(1817)
Mwerlis yvelaze cnobili romania "aivenho"(1819).igi asaxavs XII saukunis inglisis cxovrebas.es is droa inglisis istoriashi,rodesac mtkicdeboda feodaluri urtiertobebi da qveyanashi mimdinareobda brzola anglosaqsebsa da normanebs shoris.
Shua saukuneobriv ambavs agwers uolter skoti tavis romanshi "Quentin daruardi".moqmedeba XV saukunis saprangetshi xdeba,magram mtavari moqmedi piri shotlandieli aristokratia,romelic mepe lui XI-is amalashia.
Burjuaziis istoriuli revoluciis periodtan dakavshirebuli romanebi,"vudstoki"(1826) da "puritanebi"(1816)
Romanshi "vudstoki" agwerilia inglisis sinamdvile mepe charlz I sikvdilit dasjis shemdeg.
Romanshi "puritanebi" skoti agwers inglisuri burjuaziuli revoluciis shedegebs.1660wels inglishi moxda stiuartebis dinastiis restavracia,romelsac mohyva reaqciis wlebi.amastan dakavshirebit 1679 wels shotlandiashi daiwyo amboxeba,romlis sataveshi shotlandieli puritanebi iyvnen.romanic am periodis agwerit iwyeba da mtavrdeba uiliam III oranelis taxtze asvlit da qveyanashi kompromisuli mshvidobis damyarebit.

mea
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