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20 Agv 13, 13:58:42


andria mociquli, pirvelcodebuli (berdzn. Ανδρέας - ”mamaci”, lat. Andreas), qristianuli tradiciit, qristes tormet mociqultagani. xsenebis dghe - 29 (12.05) aprili, 30 (13.12) noemberi.
29 aprils (axali stilit 12 maiss) qartuli eklesia aghnishnavs andria pirvelcodebulisa da dudiyvatsa da papatshi (tanamedove turqeti), 300 mxedris, mghvdlisa da yovelta martlmadidebelta lazta qristes sarcmunoebistvis musulmantagan camebulta (1600-1602) - xsenebis dghes. andria pirvelcodebulis xsenebis dghe aghinishneba 30 noembers (axali stilit 13 dekembers) cmida didi mefis vaxtang gorgaslis (502) da cmida katalikosisebis, vaxtang gorgaslis tanamoghvaceebis - petre I-sa (V) da samuel I katalikosis (V-VI) xsenebis dghec.
cmida da yovladqebuli mociquli andria pirvelcodebuli, saqartveloshi qristes pirveli mqadagebeli(+62) mociqultagan pirveli sheudga qristes.aqedan modi misi saxelic pirvelcodebuli. andria betsaidashi daibada. man siyrmidanve sheiyvara ufali, cheshmarit scavlebas edziebda da, roca israelshi gaisma cmida cinascarmetyvelis, cinamorbedisa da natlismcemlis, ioanes xma, netari mociquli misi uaxloesi mocafe gaxda. iesos gamochenisas cmida ioanem andrias da ioane ghvtismetyvels mimarta: "aha tarigi ghmrtisai". am sityvebze oriveni tan gahyvnen macxovars da "mis tana daadgres mas dghesa shina". shemdeg ki andria dzmastan, petrestan mivida, mesiis povna axara da isic iesostan miiyvana. qristes damocafebuli dzmebi kvlav chveul saqmianobas eceodnen da tevzaobit irchendnen tavs. ertxel galileis zghvis napiras mimavalma macxovarma mat moucoda:"movedit da shemomideqit me, da gyvne tquen mesatxevle kacta", ris shemdegac isini ganuyrelad tan axldnen dze ghvtisas da misi sascaulebis, sikvdilisa da mkvdretit aghdgomis mocmeebic sheiqmnen. macxovris amaghlebis shemdeg, " raJams cil igdes mociqulta", ghvtismshobels saqartvelos moqceva xvda cilad, magram, radgan misi micvalebis Jami moaxloebuli iyo, dze ghvtisam ubrdzana, ierusalimshi darcheniliyo, saqartveloshi ki andria pirvelcodebuli gaegzavna. yovladcmida qalculma moucoda cmidans da ghvtis neba aucya, shemdeg ficari moitxova, " daibana piri, da daidua pirsa zeda tvissa". ficarze ghvtismshobeli gamoisaxa yrma iesoti. es sicmide zeciurma dedofalma andrias gadasca.
netarma andriam gaiara saberdzneti, mcire azia, shemdeg ki shavizghvispirets miashura. qalaq trapizonshi, "romel ars sofeli megrelta", cmidanma ixila adgilobriv mkvidrta "ugunurebai pirutyuebrivi", aq "dayo Jami mciredi", shemdeg ki "shevida queyanasa qartlisasa, romelsa did-achara ecodebis" da uflis sityvis qadageba daicyo. netars mravali gansacdeli daatyda tavs urcmunotagan, magram ghvtisa da patiosani xatis meoxebit yvelaferi madlobit daitmina, "vidremdis yovelnive moaqcivna, da moiyuanna sarcmunoebad". im adgilas sadac mociqulma ghvtismshoblis xati daasvena, "friad shuenieri da didi" cyaro aghmocenda. am sascaulma mraval carmarts gaunata goneba, "shemokribes yovelnive yovlit kerdzo mkvidrni mis queyanisani", da cmida andriam "natel-sca yovelta saxelita mamisata, da dzisata, da sulisa cmidisata". netarma axalmociqulebs daudgina mghvdlebi da diakvnebi, "daudga cesi, da sazghuari sarcmunoebisa", augo yovladcmida ghvtismshoblis saxelobis tadzari, sadac ficarze zeciuri dedoflis nabodzebi xatidan sascaulebriv gadasuli asli daabrdzana. amis shemdeg uflis rcheulma gadaiara "rkinis juari" - fersatis mta da aq jvari aghmarta (scored amis gamo ecoda mtas "rkinis jvari); borjomis xeobashi, sofel acyurshi man qvrivi dedakacis, samdzivaris ertaderti dze mkvdretit aghadgina. "vitarca esma mesxta ambavi ese sakvirveli, mscrafl shekrbes yovlit-kerdzo, da iqmna simravle erisa friadi". movidnen artemisa da apolonis sakerpos mghvdlebic da shurit aghvsilebma, "icyes cilobad da cinaaghmdgomad mociqulisa". shemokrebiltagan zogi idzaxda:" jer ars tayuanis-- cemad romelman ese-vitari sascauli aghasrula", sxvebi ki kvlav amtkicebdnen:"apolon da artemi arian didni ghmertni". shfoti rom chaecxrot, gadacyvites, sakerposhi ghvtismshoblis xati sheebrdzanebinat, shemdeg ki karebi daexshot da elocat: macxovris msasoeblebs - qristes mimart, kerptmsaxurebs ki - tavianti ghvtaebebis mimart da visi ghmertic sdzlevda, mistvis ecat tayvani. asec moiqcnen. daxshul tadzartan mcvelebi daayenes. dilit, roca karebi gaaghes, yvelam ixila "kerpni... queyanad datxeulni, da saxed mtuerisa shemusvrilni, xolo xati yovlad - cmidisa ghvtis-mshoblisa brcyinavda, vitarca mze, didebita da pativita". mashin sircxvileulma carmartma kerptmsaxurebma shendoba stxoves mociquls da mattan ertad mtelma erma adida cheshmariti ghmerti.
cmida andriam ramdenime xani xani kidev dahyo acyurshi ghvtis sityvis qadagebit, aqac moacyo eklesia , tadzari aago, mcire ekvdershi ghvtismshoblis xeltuqmneoli xati daasvena, shemdeg ki mesxta mxurvale vedrebis miuxedavad, ganeshora axalmoqceul samcyoss da gza ganagrdzo: iyo klarjetshi, artaan-kolashi, somxitshi, shemdeg ki ierusalimshi cavida.
ierusalimadan netari andria svimon kananeltan da matatastan ertad dabrunda chvens qveyanashi. isini qartlshi shevidnen, ganamtkices qristianoba, aqedan dahyvnen dasavletit, ganvles "taos kerdzi queyana vidre mdinared choroxamde", iyvnen samegreloshi da svanetshi. matata aq darcha, svimoni da andria ki afxazetshi cavidnen, sadac svimoni miicvala. amis shemdeg andriam jiqetshic iqadaga.
cmida mociquli skvitta qveyanashi, dghevandel rusetshic yofila, mdinare dneprs ahyolia im adgilamde, sadac amJamad kievi mdebareobs. tanmxlebi mocafeebistvis utqvams: "xedavt am mtebs? aq ghvtis madli gabrcyindeba, didi qalaqi aghmocendeba da mravali tadzari ashendeba".
uflis rcheuli tavisi mqadagebluri moghvaceobis dros mraval chirsa da gansacdels itmenda. ukanaskneli qalaqi, sadac man iqadaga, iyo patrasi (saberdznetshi). aq ufalma misi meoxeobit mravali sascauli aghasrula. cmidanis locvit ganikurnen: mdzimed dasneulebuli carchinebuli moqalaqe sosi, patrasis mmartvelis meughle maqsimila da misi dzma stratokle. qalaqshi dzalian cota carmarti darcha. mat shoris iyo qalaqis tavi egaeti. cmida andriam araertxel uqadaga mas ghvtis sityva, magram amaod. bolos ughmrto xelisufalma brdzana, jvars ecvat uflis rcheuli. andria sixarulit shexvda ganachens. tanjva rom gaexangrdzlivebina, egaetma brdzana, dzelze ki ar mielursmnat, aramed, daekidat netari. cmida mociquli ori dghe qadagebda irgvliv shemokrebilta cinashe. bolos cmidanis madlmosili sityvebit shedzrulma xalxma moitxova, cmida mociquli jvridan chamoexsnat. amboxit sheshinebulma egaetma gankarguleba gasca, gaetavisuflebinat cmidani, magram andriam mxurvaled shestxcova ufals, jvarze aghsrulebis ghirsi gaexada. meomrebi didxans amaod cdilobdnen mis chamoxsnas - xelebi ar emorchilebodat. jvarcmulma mociqulma adida ufali da aghmoxda: "ufalo ieso qriste, sheivedre suli chemi". mashin jvarsa da masze gakrul cmidans ghvtaebrivi nateli daadga tavs. roca brcyinvaleba dacxra, netari andria ukve aghsrulebuli iyo(+62), qalaqis mmarghvelis colma, maqsimilam mociqulis cxedari jvridan chamoxsna da pativit miabara micas.
konstantine didis (306 - 337) zeobisas, cmida mociqulis uxrcneli nacilebi pativit gadaasvenes konstantinopolshi da cmida mociqulta tadzarshi daabrdzanes, luka maxareblisa da timote mociqulis nacilta gverdit.

mogexsenebat rom saqartvelos moqceva qristianobaze cilad xvda deda ghvtismshobels,xolo misi txovnit es saqme scored andria piorvelcodebulma itvirta :

macxovris amaghlebis shemdeg, „raJams cil igdes mociqulta“ saqadageblad, ghvtismshobels iveriis moqceva xvda cilad, magram, radgan misi micvalebis Jami moaxloebuli iyo, dze ghvtisam ubrdzana, ierusalimshi darcheniliyo, saqartveloshi ki andria pirvelcodebuli gaegzavna tavisi xeltuqmneli xatit. yovladcmida qalculma moucoda cmidans da ghvtis neba aucya, shemdeg ficari moitxova, „daibana piri da daidva pirsa zeda tvissa“. ficarze ghvtismshobeli gamoisaxa yrma iesoti. es sicmide zeciurma dedofalma andrias gadasca da did ghvacls shemdgari, akurtxa. cmida andriam gaiara saberdzneti, mcire azia, shemdeg ki shavizghvispirets miashura, „shevida queyanasa qartlisasa, romelsa didachara ecodebis“.

sofel didacharashi dghemdea shemonaxuli tadzris nangrevebi, romelic, gadmocemit, tavad cmida andria pirvelcodebuls aushenebia.


netars mravali gansacdeli daatyda tavs urcmunotagan, magram ghvtisa da patiosani xatis meoxebit yvelaferi madlobit daitmina, „vidremdis yovelnive moaqcivna da moiyvana sarcmunoebad“. im adgilas, sadac mociqulma ghvtismshoblis xati daasvena, „friad shuenieri da didi“ cyaro aghmocenda. am sascaulma mraval carmarts gaunata goneba da sheudgnen qristes macxovnebel scavlebas. mociqulma axalmoqceult daudgina mghvdlebi da diakvnebi. „daudgina cesi da sazghvari sarcmunoebisa“, augo yovladcmida ghvtismshoblis tadzari, sadac ficarze zeciuri dedoflis nabodzebi xatidan sascaulebriv gadasuli asli daabrdzana. amis shemdeg uflis rcheulma gadaiara fersatis mta da aq jvari aghmarta (scored amis gamo ecoda am mtas „rkinis jvari“). mociquli shemdeg sofel acyurshi mivida, romelic adre sosangetad icodeboda. am dros am mxaris gamgebeli iyo qvrivi samdzivari, romelsac ertaderti vaJi hyavda. scored am dros mas shvili mohkvdomoda. qvrivs sheatyobines, rom iq iyo erti adamiani, romelic ucnob ghmertze loculobda. am cnobam mas gulshi imedi chausaxa da mociquli tavistan ixmo. cmida andriam qvrivi dedakacis ertaderti dze mkvdretit aghadgina. gaxarebulma qalma madlobit ircmuna ufali ieso qriste, tavis shviltan ertad moinatla da samcxis mtavrebs cerili miscera, am ambavs atyobinebda da yvelas tavistan ixmobda. „vitarca esma mesxta ambavi ese sakvirveli, mscrafl shekrbes yovlit kerdzo da iqmna simravle erisa friadi“. movidnen sakerpos msaxurnic. xalxi orad gaiyo; nacili idzaxda, „jer ars tayuanis-cemad, romelma ese vitari sascauli aghasrula“, sxvebi ki kvlav cru ghmertebis ertgulni rchebodnen. ciloba rom chaecxrot, gadacyvites, sakerposhi ghvtismshoblis xati sheebrdzanebinat, shemdeg ki kari daexshot. macxovris msasoeblebs - qristes mimart, kerptmsaxurebs ki - tavianti ghvtaebisadmi unda elocat. daxshul tadzartan mcvelebi daayenes. dilit, roca kari gaaghes, yvelam ixila „kerpebi queyanad datxeulni da saxed mtuerisa shemusrvilni, xolo xati yovladcmidisa ghmrtismshobelisa brcyinvida, vitarca mze, didebita da pativita“. cmida andriam acyurshi moacyo eklesia da mcire ekvdershi ghvtismshoblis xeltuqmneli xati daasvena, shemdeg ki axalmoqceul samcysos ganeshora da gza ganagrdzo: iyo klarjetshi, artaankolashi, partetshi, somxetshi, shemdeg ki ierusalimshi cavida.

ierusalimtan andria svimon kananeltan da matatastan ertad isev saqartveloshi dabrunda. isini qartlshi shevidnen, ganamtkices qristianoba da „dahyvnen dasavletit, ganvles taos kerdzo qveyana vidre choroxamde“, iyvnen samegrelosa da svanetshi. svimoni da andria afxazetshi cavidnen „xolo didi andrea svimoniturt... shevides queyanasa afxazetisasa da uqadages sityua igi ghutis-mecnierebisa da mravalta sixarulit sheicynares qadageba igi da mun dauteva netarman andrea svimon kananeli sxvata tana mocafeta da tavad jiqetisa queyanad avida“. jiqetis mkvidrma mosaxleobam ara marto uari ganacxada misi qadagebis mighebaze, aramed mociqulis mokvlac ki gadacyvita. mati sijiute da uxeshi goneba rom dainaxa, mociqulma miatova isini da cavida. cmida andria mociquli skvitta qveyanashi, dghevandel rusetshic yofila. mdinare dneprs ahyolia im adgilamde, sadac amJamad qalaqi kievi mdebareobs.

ukanaskneli qalaqi, sadac mociqulma iqadaga, patra (saberdzneti) iyo, cmidanis locvit am qalaqshi uamravi adamiani moeqca qristes sjulze, magram qalaqis tavi egaeti kvlav ertguli rcheboda cru ghvtaebisa. ughmrto xelisufalma brdzana, jvars ecvat uflis rcheuli. cmidani sixarulit shexvda ganachens da tavisit avida jvarze. tanjva rom gaexangrdzlivebina, egaetma brdzana, dzelze ki ar mielursmnat, aramed daekidat netari. cmida mociquli ori dghe qadagebda irgvliv shekrebilta cinashe. bolos, cmidanis madlmosili sityvebit shedzrulma xalxma moitxova, jvridan chamoexsnat igi. ughmrto egaetma gankarguleba gasca, gaetavisuflebinat cmidani, magram andriam mxurvaled shestxova ufals, jvarze aghsrulebis ghirsi gaexada. meomrebi didxans amaod cdilobdnen mis chamoxsnas. cmidanma „aghixilna tualni zecad da madloba shescira ufals da akurtxna morcmuneni igi juarsa damokidebulman“. da ase, ghvtisadmi madlobit aghesrula cmidani. qalaqis mmartvelis colma mociqulis cxedari jvridan chamoxsna da pativit miabara micas. ramdenime saukunis shemdeg konstantine didi zeobisas cmida mociqulis uxrcneli nacilebi pativit daasvenes konstantinepolshi da cmida mociqulta tadzarshi daabrdzanes luka maxareblisa da timote mociqulis nacilta gverdit.

xshirad, chveni istoriis avbeditobis gamo, chveni eklesiis samociqulo carmomavloba echvqvesh dgeboda. amis dasturia cmida giorgi mtacmidelis cxovrebashi aghcerili ert-erti epizodi, sadac cmida giorgi antioqiis patriarqis cinashe shemdegi sityvebit icavda saqartvelos eklesiis tvitmyofadobas: „cmidao meufeo, shen ityvi, tavisa mis mociqultaჲsa petres saydarze vzio. xolo chuen pirvelcodebulisa da dzmisa tvisisa mcodebelisa nacilni vart da samcysoni da mis mier moqceulni da ganatlebulni. da erti cmidata atormetta mociqultagani - svimeons vityvi kananelsa - queyanasa chuensa damarxul ars afxazets, romelsa nikofsi ecodebis. amat cmidata mociqulta ganatlebulni vart. da vinaჲtgan erti ghmerti gvicnobies, arghara uargviyofies. da arca odes cualebisa mimart midrekil ars natesavi chueni, da yovelta uarismyofelta da mcualebelta shevachuenebt da davscyevt. amas safudzvelsa zeda martlmadideblobisasa da mcnebata da qadagebata zeda cmidata mat mociqultasa mtkice vart“.



andria pirvelcodebulis roli udidesia saqartvelosatvis da mteli kacobriobisatvis.

is gaxldat macxovris pirveli mocafe. adre iyo cminda ioane natlismcemlis mocafe.

qristianobis qadagebisas andria pirvelcodebulma moiara mravali qveyana, romelic mas cilad ergo. igi ramdenjerme iyo saqartveloshi saqadageblad da gavlit. dacyebuli misi pirveli misioneruli mogzaurobidan. saqartveloshi andria pirvelcodebuli yovladcminda ghvtismshoblis kurtxevit chamovida. amaze shesanishnavad gviambobs „qartlis cxovreba“.

xshirad gaigonebt, rom „andria pirvelcodebuli saqartveloshi pirvelad acharashi shemovidao“. es ar aris martali. cnobilia, rom igi xmeletit mogzaurobda, dziritadad, amgvarad, sanam acharashi shevidoda mas unda gaevlo sxva teritoria, romlebic acharas esazghvreba. acharis samxretit da mere dasavletit lazetia. lazeti ki qartvelebit iyo dasaxlebuli udzvelesi epoqidan. lazetma misca saqartvelos tvitdasaxeleba, etnonimi. adre lazets erqva qaldea. mecnierebis azrit, qaldeadan unda iyos nacarmoebi sityva qartli (qaldi-qarti, qaldu -qartu, qaldeveli- qartueli).

lazebi qartvelebis ghvidzli nacili arian. tu davamxinjebt istorias, vityvit, rom andria saqartveloshi, pirvelad, acharashi shemovida, amit vacyeninebt lazebs, chvens sisxls da xorcs... amgvarad matze uars vambobt. arada lazebi magari qristianebi da qartvelebi iyvnen yoveltvis. unda gvaxsovdes, rom trapizoni istoriulad qartuli qalaqia... am sakitxs exmianeba saqartvelos istoriuli rukebis moxazvis temac, ris shesaxebac sxva dros visaubrebt (sakitxis uket gasaazreblad ixilet chemi ruka: „saqartvelos tanamegobroba XII saukunis dasacyisshi“, amave saitze).

sxvata shoris, am sakitxs, nebsit tu uneblied, ideologiurad, exmianeba saqartveloshi qalaq lazikis msheneblobis sakitxi. saxelcodeba dzalian momcons...

adre dzveli lazika arsebobda dghevandeli afxazetis chrdiloetit, sadghac sochis olqis midamoebshi. roca saqartvelo aghdgeba tavis istoriul sazghvrebshi, iq ashendeba qalaqi saxelcodebit - axali lazika.

axla ki gavixsenot ras gviambobs „qartlis cxovreba“ andria pirvelcodebulis saqartveloshi shemosvlis shesaxeb. avtori, ambis gadmocemis dros, lazetisa da qartlis mcxovrebt mcared akritikebs mati carmartuli religiis gamo („ugunureba pirutyuebrivi“), es pirdapir ar unda gavigot, amgvari uaryofiti damokidebuleba carmartebisadmi gavrcelebuli iyo mtel qristianul samyaroshi, chven gvainteresebs faqti, lazeti - saqartveloa.

zemot chven vaxsenet 300 cminda lazi, romelnic sheecirnen qristianuli sarcmunoebis ertgulebas da samshoblos. sinamdvileshi mati ricxvi gacilebit metia. erti nacili, 300 lazi meomari, gamahmadianebis politikis cinaaghmdeg ajanyebulni da mtaze gamagrebulni, sheipyres ricxobrivad gacilebit metma turqebma da gamahmadianeba motxoves. uaris gamo mat tavebi mohkvetes da mdinareshe gadayares. am adgils, mtas da mdinares ecoda dudukveta (taviskveta), shemdeg dampyroblebma sxva mtaze monastris berebi sheipyres da matac gamahmadianeba mostxoves. aqac qristes ertgul berebsac tavi mohkvetes. am mtas papatis (samghvdelota) mta ecoda. simboluria, rom cminda lazebis xsenebis dghe emtxveva saqartvelos ert-erti ganmanatleblis, andria pirvelcodebulis xsenebis dghes.

„qartlis cxovreba“

(nacyveti)

movida ... andria qalaqad trapizonad, romel ars sofeli megrelta, sada-igi dahyo Jami mciredi, da ixila ugunureba pirutyuebrivi mkჳdrta shoris mis qalaqisata, ganvida mier da shevida queyanasa qartlisasa, romelsa did-achara ecodebis, da icyo qadagebad saxarebisa. rametu kacni pirutyuta uugunures iyvnes da ara icnobdes shemoqmedsa ghmertsa, da yovelsa sadzagelsa da ara-cmidasa cessa aghasrulebdes, romeli satqmelada-ca ujero ars. da mravalni chirni da gansacdelni daitminna urcmunotagan, da shecevnita ghmrtisata da cmidisa mis xatisata yovelni-ve madlobit moitminna, vidremdis yovelni-ve moaqcivna da moiyvanna sarcmunoebad. rametu adgilsa, romelsa daasvena xati yovlad-cmidisa ghmrtis-mshoblisa, aghmoecena cyaro friad shuenieri da didi, romeli-igi vidre dghes-ca dauceuedelad aghmosdis. da shemokrbes yovelni-ve yovlit-kerdzo mkჳdrni mis queyanisani, da natel-sca yovelta saxelita mamisata, da dzisata, da sulisa cmidisata, da daadginna mghudelni da diakonni, da daudva cesi da sazghuari sarcmunoebisa da aghashenes ekklesia shuenieri saxelsa zeda yovlad-cmidisa ghvtis-mshoblisasa. da vitarca eneba cmidasa mociqulsa mier carslva, evedrebodes da ara utevebdes carslvad, aramed etyodes: „uketu shen carxval, xati ege yovlad-cmidisa ghvtis-mshoblisa aqa dagჳsvene, sasod da mcvelad chuenda“. xolo cmidaman mociqulman andria sheqmna ficari msgavsi zomisa da dasdva xatsa mas zeda. da meyuseulad gamoisaxa saxe ucvalebeli xatisa mis da misca igi mat. xolo mat sixarulit sheicynares da daisvenes ekklesiasa shina tჳssa pativit, romeli-igi vidre dghes-aqamomde hgies. xolo cmidasa mociqulsa misces mshჳdoba da mocled moikitxes, ambors-uyves da carmogzavnes.


shevtxovot chvens shemcesa da mfarvels cmida andrias:

cmidao mociqulo, mociqulta upirates codebulo andria, evedre ghmertsa chventvis, rata sofelsa mshvidoba moanichos da sulta chventa didi cyaloba!
1 Madlobeli momxmareblebi.


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