"vefxistyaosani" | GeoForum.Ge
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10 Noem 12, 9:59:50





vefxistyaosani — XII saukunis qartveli poetis, shota rustavelis chvenamde moghceuli ertaderti poema. shedgeba prologis, dziritadi nacilisa da epilogisagan. shinaarsis mxriv, vefxistyaosani rtuli nacarmoebia; aq ori paraleluri ambavia motxrobili — arabetisa da indoetisa, tumca orive matgani ertmanettan siuJeturad dakavshirebulia. poema mdidaria personaJebit. dacerilia shairis stilshi, teqvsmetmarcvliani sazomit.

dghemde moghceuli araa teqstis pirvandeli varianti; udzvelesi xelnaceri, romelic dgheisatvisaa cnobili, XVI saukunit tarighdeba. saukuneebis ganmavlobashi poemis teqsti icvleboda, interpolatorebis (yalbismqnelebis) mier xshirad emateboda axali strofebi, zogjer ki mteli tavebic; dghes poemis es damatebuli tavebi „vefxistyaosnis gagrdzelebebis“ saxelitaa cnobili.

dghemde moghceulia vefxistyaosnis 160-ze meti xelnaceri cigni. bechdurad poema pirvelad 1712 cels vaxtang VI-is mier gamoica. vefxistyaosnis zogierti xelnaceri nusxa gaformebulia mdidruli ornamentebita da miniatiurebit. sxvadasxva mxatvris mier sheqmnilia ilustraciebi. poema gadatargmnilia msoflios mraval enaze.

shua saukuneebshica da shemdeg droshic vefxistyaosani did rols asrulebda qartveli eris, gansakutrebit ki qartuli literaturis tvitmyofadobis sakitxebshi; vefxistyaosani qartveltatvis ert-ert sayvarel cignad. rcheboda. miuxedavad amisa, shua saukuneebshi vefxistyaosani xshirad idevneboda eklesiis mxridan, radgan igi antiqristianul, sparsul nacarmoebad itvleboda. tumca poemis devnam ver sheasusta misi mnishvneloba qartvel xalxshi, piriqit, misi gavlena ufro metad gaizarda axali drois qartvel mcerlebshi. dghes vefxistyaosani msoflio literaturis ert-ert shedevrad itvleba.

vefxistyaosani sami nacilisagan shedgeba: prologi (shesavali), mtavari ambavi da epilogi (dasasruli).
prologi da epilogi [redaqtireba]

vefxistyaosnis prologi da epilogi garkveul cnobebs idzleva poemis istriul-literaturuli sakitxebisa da tavad avtoris shexedulebebis shesaxeb. zogierti mosazrebit prologi epilogtan ertad gviani xanis damatebaa da ar ekutvnis poemis dziritadi nacilis avtors; sxva mosazrebit ki prologsa da epilogshi mxolod ramdenime strofia shemdeg damatebuli, dziritadi nacili ki shota rustavels ekutvnis. am ukanasknel mosazrebas icavs rustvelologi aleqsandre sarajishvili, romelic yalbad acxadebs prologis rig strofebs, tumca iqve aghnishnavs, rom prologi vefxistyaosnis ghirsebaa da masshi shota rustavelma mokled gadmosca poemis mtavari satqmeli[1]:„ cxadad chans, rom rustavels scadda am cinasityvaobit gamoetqva poemis dasabami da dedaazri, tavisi sulis vitareba da mdgomareoba poemis shetxzvis Jamisa, tavisi shexeduleba da urtiertoba poemis gmirebtan; scadda gamoexata tavisi ideali, romelic yovels poets asuldgmulebs da mis udzvirfases gandzs sheadgens — mijnuroba da poezia. „cinasityvaoba“ ara tu sxvis mikerebuli apokrifi ar aris, aramed poemis moucyveteli nacilia, misi axsnaa da klite-gasaghebi. “


aleqsandre sarajishvilis msgavsi mosazreba shedarebit adre gamotqmuli aqvs aseve aleqsandre naneishvilsac[2]. sapirispiros amtkicebda rustvelologi davit karichashvili. misi azrit vefxistyaosnis prologica da epilogis gayalbebulia da aranairi saerto ara aqvt poemis mtavar naciltan. davit karichashvilis mosazrebit, es ori nacili cal-calkec ertians arafers carmoadgenen da mati calkeuli taepebi sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva pirtaganaa dacerili[3]. davit karichashvilis es mosazreba mkacrad gaakritika nikoloz marma tavis rustvelologiur nashromshi[4]. davit karichashvilma, miuxedavad nikoloz maris kritikisa, sakutari mosazrebani ucvlelad gaimeora specialur narkvevshi „vefxistyaosnis shemadgenloba“[5]. es mosazrebebi gaiziara da kidev ufro ganavitara rustvelologma aleqsandre svanidzem[6]. davit karichashvils erti periodi mxars ucherda korneli kekelidzec[7]. es mosazreba prolog-epilogis siyalbis shesaxeb mogvianebit gaakritika aleqsandre baramidzem. misi tqmit prologi da epilogi garkveul tradiciul principebs efudzneba. kompoziciuri tvalsazrisit prologis teqsti dziritad naciltan srul cesrigshia, poema samive nacilit tanmimdevruli da sanimushoa[8]. vefxistyaosnis tanmimdevrulobisa da sanimushoobis shesaxeb amgvaradve fiqrobda vaJa-fshavelac[9].
dziritadi nacili

vefxistyaosnis dziritadi nacili carmoadgens shedarebit martiv fabulur ambavs, romelic siuJeturi cyobitaa gartulebuli. dziritad nacilshi ori ambavia motxrobili, arabetisa da indoetisa. es ori ambavi ertmanettan mchidrodaa dakavshirebuli da gadaxlartuli, imgvarad, rom siuJeturad vefxistyaosani mainc ertiani nacarmoebia. poemis dziritadi siuJeturi ambavi gamdidrebulia shemavali epizodebit; asetebia, magalitad, nadiroba, fridonis ambavi, fatmanis ambavi. es shemavali epizodebi tavis mxriv mcire dasrulebuli, siuJeturi ambebia[10]. garda am ambebisa, vefxistyaosnis dziritad nacilshi xshiria e. c. statikuri elementebi, rogoricaa anderdzebi, epistoleebi, dialogebi, aghcerilobebi, lirikuli gadaxvevebi, aforizmebi da sxva[11].

rustaveli ambavs scrafi tempit avitarebs, mokled da daxvecilad, rogorc zogierti rustvelologi aghnishnavs, zogavs drosa da energias[12]. aghsanishnavia, rom rustavelisatvis damaasiatebelia tavisi mosazrebis damadastureblad personaJebis mocmobis moyvana[13][14]. siuJetit vefxistyaosani, mecnierebis tqmit, dghemde mimzidveli casakitxia. vefxistyaosnis espanurad mtargmnelis, gustavo de la tores sityvit, rustavelis poemis „kitxva momxiblavia“[15]. qartveli rustvelologi aleqsandre baramidze aghnishnavs, rom siuJeturi xlartebi vefxistyaosanshi ishviati xelovnebitaa shekruli da gaxsnili, situaciebi tandatanobit rtuldeba da mdzafrdeba, rac dzabavs mkitxvelis yuradghebas da aghdzravs interess[16].

poemis dziritadi nacilis shinaarsidan gamomdinare, tradiciuli tvalsazrisit vefxistyaosnis mtavar temad michneuli iyo siyvaruli. es mosazreba sakamato gaxada nikoloz marma, romelmac gamotqva azri, rom mtavari tema poemashi aris ara siyvaruli, aramed dzmoba da megobroba[17]. niko mars daetanxma ivane javaxishvili da aghnishna, rom scored xalxta megobrobisa da dzmobis ideaa mtavari rustavelis poemashi[18]. zurab avalishvili tvlis, rom siyvarulsa da megobrobas shoris vefxistyaosanshi archevanis gaketeba rtulia da mat tanabarmnishvnelovan temebad miichnevs poemashi[19]. akademikosi v. shishmariovi miichnevs, rom vefxistyaosani siyvarulis poemaa da amashi daechveba sheudzlebelia[20]. ingliseli literaturatmcodne moris bauras mosazrebitac vefxistyaosanshi upiratesia siyvarulis idea da ara megobrobisa[21]. amaves ambobs amerikeli qartvelologi luis solanoc[22]. siyvaruli miichnia vefxistyaosnis mtavar temad qartvelma rustvelologma aleqsandre baramidzemac[23].

aghsanishnavia, rom vefxistyaosnis dziritadi nacilis yvela strofi, zogierti mkvlevaris azrit, ar unda ekutvnodes shota rustavels. arsebobs mosazreba, rom indo-xataelta ambavi vefxistyaosanshi mogvianebitaa damatebuli; garda am tavisa, saechvoa zogierti calkeuli strofis carmomavlobac[24] (ufro vrclad amis shesaxeb ixilet amave statiis seqcia avtori, vefxistyaosnis gamgrdzeleblebi).
shinaarsi
prologisa da epilogis shinaarsi



vefxistyaosnis prologi da epilogi shinaarsobrivad garkveul tradiciul principzea agebuli. prologis dasacyisshi avtori qebita da locvit mimartavs samyaros shemoqmeds (1. da 2. strofebi)[25]. ghvtisadmi mimartvis shemdeg rustaveli qebas udzghvnis amqveyniur mefeebs (3-5 strofebi), sadac igi aghnishnavs, rom ar icis, rogor shehkadros xotbis shesxma tamar mefis „loms“. sityva „lomi“ poemis mesame strofshi naxmaria metaforuli mnishvnelobit da aghnishnavs tamar mefis meughles. epilogshi igi ukve sakutari saxelit — davititaa moxseniebuli[26]. meotxe strofi sagangebod sakutriv tamar mefes edzghvneba[27]:„ tamars vaqebdet mefesa, sisxlisa creml-datxeuli... “


ghvtisa da saqartvelos samefos mmartvelta qebis shemdeg poemis avtori prologshi sakutar tavze da shemoqmedebaze saubrobs. me-6 da me-7 strofebshi ukve poemis mtavari gmiris, tarielis saxelia naxsenebi[28]. imave me-7 da shemdeg strofebshi ki avtori orjer ixseniebs sakutar tavs rustvelis saxelit[29]:„ davje, rustvelman gavleqse, mistvis gullaxvarsobili...
me, rustveli, xelobita viq saqmesa amadari... “


am yvelafris shemdeg rustaveli prologshi avitarebs or teorias shairobisa da mijnurobis shesaxeb. shairobaze saubrisas igi tavidanve gansazghvravs mis (poeziis) arss da mis bunebas; kerdzod, poemis me-12 strofis[30] mixedvit poezia sibrdznis dargadaa michneuli da misi shemecnebiti mnishvnelobaa xazgasmuli. poetis tqmit, poezia „msmenelistvis didi margia“, garda amisa shairobas rustaveli saghmrto saqmed miichnevs, romelsac saamqveyno danishnulebac aqvs[31].

poeziis bunebisa da danishnulebis gansazghvris shemdeg rustaveli mis specifikaze saubrobs da ambobs: „grdzeli sityva mokled itqmis, shairia amad kargi“. moshaires tavis saqmeshi isetive gacafuloba moetxoveba, rogorc sportis ostats (moburtals)[32]. leqsis yoveli mtxzveli shotas poetad ar miachnia. igi meleqseebs tavianti shesadzleblobebis mixedvit hyofs sam kategoriad da am daxarisxebas idzleva me-15, me-16 da me-17 strofebshi[33]. pirvel kategorias rustaveli miakutvnebs erti-ori umsgavso leqsis avtorebs, romlebsac, poetis tqmit, „moshaire ara hqvia“. meore kategoriashi shota atavsebs meleqseebs, romlebsac ar sheudzliat dzlieri emociuri zegavlena moaxdinon mkitxvelze. amgvar poetebs rustaveli gaucafav ymacvil monadires adarebs, romelsac didi mxecis monadireba ar sheudzlia. mesame kategoriashi ki poets shehyavs meleqseebi, romelta nacarmoebebic gasartobad, drois mosaklavad gamosadegia. aq rustaveli ar uaryofs msubuqi Janris cvrili salaghobo leqsebis mnishvnelobas[34].

vefxistyaosnis prologshi shairobis temas ushualod, logikurad, azrobrivad ebmis mijnurobis tema. rustavelis tqmit, kargi meleqse tavis shemoqmedebas fuchad ki ar unda fantavdes, aramed am xelovnebas mijnuris saqebad, siyvarulis sadideblad unda iyenebdes[35]. poeti ertmanetisagan mkacrad asxvavebs namdvil mijnurobasa da xorciel cadils, sidzvas[36]:„ mijnuroba aris turfa, sacodnelad dzneli gvari;

mijnuroba sxva ramea, ar sidzvisa dasadari;
igi sxvaa, sidzva sxvaa, shua uzis didi zghvari,
nurvin garevt ertmanetsa! gesmis chemi naubari? “


moshaireebis msgavsad shota siyvarulsac sam kategoriad yofs. „pirveli mijnuroba“ prologis mixedit „sazeo saqmea“, ghvtaebrivi movlenaa. meorea amqveyniuri, micieri, xorcieli siyvaruli, adamianuri grdznoba (romelsac shota sidzvisagan mkacrad mijnavs). mijnurobis mesame saxes, xorciel cadils, sqesobrivi Jinit gatacebas poeti siyvarulis cnebidan saertod gamoricxavs da daufaravad akritikebs[37]:„ mdzuls ugulo siyvaruli, xvevna, kocna, mtlasha-mtlushi. “


rustaveli uaryofs mijnurobis orive ukidures formas — sazeo-saimqveyno siyvarulsa da xorciel gatacebas (sidzvas) da prologshi xsnis, rom misi poema amqveyniur, adamianur grdznobaze, namdvil siyvarulzea dacerili. kargi mijnurisagan poeti moitxovs ertgulebas, siturfes, siuxves, karg enasa da gonebas, sidzlieres da simdidresac[38].

prologshi poeti ambobs, rom poemashi motxrobili ambavi dasrulda, poemis gmirebma daasrules amqveyniuri cxovreba da gardaicvalnen. prologis pirvel strofshi kidev ertxelaa moxseniebuli rustaveli (tumca, prologis strofebis daceras tradiciulad shota rustavels ar miaceren). dasasrulshi poeti kidev ertxel aqebs saqartvelos mmartvelebs, tamar mefesa da davit soslans. ukanasknel strofshi moxseniebulia im periodis nacarmoebebi mati avtorebiturt, mat shoris dasaxelebulia rustaveli, tarielis maqebari. aghsanishnavia, rom aq rustavli mesame pirshia dasaxelebuli, rac ert-erti mizezia imisa, rom prologis strofebis avtorad zogjer shota rustavels ar miichneven[39] (vrclad amis shesaxeb ixilet amave statiis qvetavi avtori, vefxistyaosnis gamgrdzeleblebi).
dziritadi siuJeti [redaqtireba]

vefxistyaosnis dziritad nacilshi ori ertmanettan mchidrod dakavshirebuli ambavia motxrobili; ertia arabetis ambavi, xolo meore indoetisa. poema icyeba arabetis (mefe rostevani, tinatini da avtandili) ambit. arabetis mefis, rostevanis moxucebulobis gamo taxtze mefis survilit misi ertaderti qalishvili, tinatini adis. tinatinsa da spaspet avtandils ertmaneti uyvardebat. ertxel, nadirobisas mefe da avtandili cylis piras mtiral ucxo moymes caacydebian, romelic vefxis tyavitaa shemosili (vefxistyaosani). mefem misi gacnoba moisurva, tumca ucxo moyme gauchinarda. mefe danaghvlianda. tinatinma avtandils daavala ucxo moymis modzebna, avtandilma sheasrula misi davaleba, ipova moyme — tarieli, moismina misgan siyvarulis tragikuli ambavi, daudzmobilda da daxmareba aghutqva. martlac, avtandilma miagno tarielis dakarguli satrfos kvals da bolosdabolos dzmadnaficma moymeebma — avtandilma, tarielma da fridonma — ixsnes qajebis mier shepyrobili nestani, tarielis satrfo[40].

meore ambavi aris is tragikuli istoria, romelic tarielma avtandils uambo. indoetis amirbarsa da indoetis mefis asuls, tarielsa da nestan-darejans, ertmaneti sheuyvardat. mshoblebi qalis sxvaze mitxovebas apirebdnen. nestanis rchevit tarielma sasidzo mokla. mefesa da amirbars shoris sheiqmna konfliqti. nestani umagalitod dasajes — zghvis shoreul sivrceshi gadasakargavad gaatanes mona-zangebs. tarieli ushedegod edzebda tavis satrfos, tumca imedgacruebuli bolos gashorda sazogadoebas da udabnoshi, gamoqvabulshi dasaxlda nestanis aghmzrdel ertgul asmattan ertad. es istoria siuJetis tanmimdevrobashi chartulia im adgilas, sadac avtandili ipovnis tariels da tarieli mas tavis ambavs uambobs[40].
personaJebi

vefxistyaosani sakmaod mdidari poemaa personaJta crit. moqmedeba farto geografiul arezea gashlili da personaJebic sxvadasxva qveynis carmomadgenlebi arian, mat shoris gamogonili qveynebisac (rogoricaa, magalitad, mulghazanzari). poemashi araa gamoyvanili erovnebit qartveli personaJi. zogierti mkvlevaris azrit, vefxistyaosanshi dasaxelebul samefoebshi imdroindeli saqartvelos kutxeebi igulisxmeba. ivane javaxishvilis tqmit, shota rustavelis gmirebshi qartuli guli dzgers da mat mashindeli saqartvelos sakitxebi aghelvebt[41].

vefxistyaosnis personaJebtan dakavshirebit narkvevebi gamoqveynebuli aqvt akaki ceretelsa[42][43][44][45] da ilia chavchavadzes[46]. akakis mosazrebit vefxistyaosnis qveynebi gadarqmeuli saqartvelos sxvadasxva kutxeebia, shesabamisad xalxic qartvelia. akaki pirdapir asaxelebs, rom tarieli carmoshobit ameridanaa (aghmosavlet saqartvelodan), avtandili imeridan (dasavletidan), xolo fridoni shavizghvispireli qartvelia — am sami gmiris ertoba ki ertian, shekavshirebul qartvel xalxs idzleva. akakim nestani carmoidgina saqartvelos simbolod, romelsac qartveli xalxi mxolod ertiani dzalebit tu ushvelis. amgvarad akakim scada qartvelta subetnikur niadagze vefxistyaosnis personaJta tipuri bunebis garkveva[47]. akakis mosazrebas daetanxma davit karichashvilic, tumca man aghnishna, rom qartveli xalxis etnografiuli carmomadgenlebi rustavels gangeb ki ar dauxatavs, aramed es tavistavad, poetis uneburad moxda[48]. vefxistyaosnis personaJebze akakis azri mkacrad gaakritika ilia chavchavadzem. misi tqmit, akakim „vicro farglebshi moamcyvdia“ didebuli qartuli poemis mnishvneloba, xolo misi avtori ubralo etnografad gamoachina. ilias azrit, rustavelis personaJebi arian „zogadi adamianebis tipebi“ da ara romelime „qartleli, kaxeli, petre, ivane“[49].

vefxistyaosnis personaJebis daxasiatebas udzghvna nashromi vladimer norakidzem. misi tqmit tarieli da avtandili, aseve fridonic arian msgavsi xasiatebis adamianebi, tumca isini mainc ar kargaven sakutar individualobas[50][51][52][53][54]. am mxriv diametrulad gansxvavebuli mosazreba aqvs ivane javaxishvils. misi tqmit, piriqit, vefxistyaosnis mtavari gmirebi (tarieli da avtandili) imdroindeli saqartvelos or absoluturad gansxvavebul tips carmoadgenen; javaxishvili xsnis, rom gansxvaveba konkretulad imashia, rom tarieli ibrdzvis, aris mamaci, tumca mis brdzolas ara aqvs ideuri xasiati, avtandili ki piriqit, xmals mxolod imisatvis ishishvlebs, rom sheuracxyofilebs daexmaros, gaatavisuflos chagrulebi[55]. am sakitxshi ivane javaxishvils ar etanxmeba aleqsandre baramidze[56].

vefxistyaosnis dziritadi personaJebi arian:
tarieli — ucxo moyme, vefxistyaosani, nestanis mijnuri, avtandilisa da fridonis dzmadnafici;
avtandili — arabetis spaspeti, tinatinis mijnuri, tarielisa da fridonis dzmadnafici;
nuradin-fridoni — mulghazanzaris mefe, tarielisa da avtandilis dzmadnafici;
nestan-darejani — tarielis mijnuri, farsadanis qalishvili;
tinatini — avtandilis mijnuri, rostevanis qalishvili da tanamesaydre;
rostevani — arabetis mefe;
farsadani — indoetis mefe;
davari — farsadanis da, qajetshi gatxovili, nestan-darejanis gamzrdeli da mascavlebeli; shermadini — avtandilis ertguli msaxuri;
asmati — nestan-darejanis mona-msaxuri, tarielis msaxuri da megobari;
ramazi — xataetis mefe;
useni — gulansharos mtavari;
fatmani — usenis coli;
chashnagiri — fatmanis sayvareli;
meliq–surxavi — gulansharos mefe;
usami — vachrebis metauri.



fabulis cyaro

vefxistyaosnis fabulis originalobaze echvi dabada tavad poemis prologis ert-ertma strofma, romelshic avtori cers[57]:„ ese ambavi sparsuli, qartulad natargmanebi ...
... vpove da leqsad gardavtqvi, saqme vqmen sachochmanebi ... “


am strofis mixedvit, rustavels xelt hqonia sparsul enaze dacerili da shemdeg qartulad natargmni prozauli motxroba da is gauritmavs, leqsad „gardautqvams“. am strofis azri amgvarad, pirdapiri mnishvnelobit esmodat XVIII saukunemde. pirvelad vefxistyaosnis fabulis sparsulobashi echvi vaxtang VI-s sheepara; igi tavis komentarebshi kritikulad ganixilavs am sakitxs da aghnishnavs[58]:„ es ambavi sparsshi ar aris... sparsshid es ambavi arsad ipoeba. “


vefxistyaosnis siuJetis sparsulidan carmoshobis teorias icavda nikoloz mari. mas ert dros britanetis muzeumshi eguleboda rustavelis poemis sparsuli prototipis xelnaceri, tumca misi molodini ar gamartlda. miuxedavad amisa, igi tavis monografiul nashromebshi mainc vefxistyaosnis fabulis sparsulobas icavs[59][60]. am mosazrebas ecinaaghmdegeboda vaJa-fshavela da aghnishnavda, rom tu poemis fabula sparsulia, mas sparsetshic bevri galeqsavda[61]. XX saukunis mkvlevarta umravlesobam uaryo dzveli shexedulebebi, sayoveltaod aghiarebuli iqna vefxistyaosnis siuJeturi originaluroba. mogvianebit sargis kakabadzem scada aghedgina mivicyebuli teoriis aghdgena da ivarauda, rom vefxistyaosani sparsul enaze mexotbe chaxruxadzis dzmam prozaulad dacera; igi qartulad gadmotargmna sargis tmogvelma, xolo sabolood ki shota rustavelma galeqsa[62]. am azrma mecnierebashi fexi ver moikida; igi gaakritika rustvelologma aleqsandre baramidzem, gaioz imedashvilma, solomon caishvilma[63].

dghes rogorc sazogadoebis, ise mkvlevarta shoris gavrcelebuli da mighebulia mosazreba, rom shota rustavelma „sparsuli ambis“ momizezebit gamoiyena msoflio literaturashi fartod gavrcelebuli siuJetis xelovnurad shenighbvisa da gaucxoebis xerxi. es xerxi fartod iyo gavrcelebuli gansakutrebit shua saukuneebshi rogorc evropis qveynebshi, ise saqartveloshi[64]. siuJetis gaucxoebis aucilobloba, aleqsandre baramidzis azrit gamocveuli iyo vefxistyaosanshi asaxuli gamchvirvale istoriuli asociaciebita da poemashi gatarebuli shexedulebebis radikalizmit[65].

vefxistyaosnis fabulis originalurobis teorias amyarebs im mkvlevarta mosazrebebi, romlebic poemis siuJetshi shota rustavelis tanadrouli saqartvelos istoriul sinamdviles xedaven. rustvelologta umravlesoba poemashi aghceril tinatinisa da nestan-darejanis ambebshi saqartvelos realuri mefis, giorgi III-is mier tamaris gamefebis, rumis sultnis mier xelis txovnis istoriebtan poulobs msgavsebas. amgvar azrs avitarebdnen mari brose[66][67], davit chubinashvili[68], dimitri baqradze[69], mose janashvili[70], vaJa fshavela[71]. es azri mogvianebit gaiziares sxvebmac: dimitri benashvilma[72], d. qumsishvilma[73], niko marma[74] da sxvebma. sakmaod gavrcelebulia mosazreba, rom shota rustaveli tavad monacileobs poemashi, rogorc personaJi, avtandilis an tarielis saxit. am azrs icavdnen da avitarebdnen vaJa-fshavela[75], sergi gorgadze[76], pavle ingoroyva[77].


vefxistyaosnis ena carmoadgens gardamaval safexurs dzvel qartulsa da axal qartul enas shoris; masshi moipoveba rogorc dzveli, ise axali qartulisatvis damaxasiatebeli nishnebi. vefxistyaosnis ena gansxvavebulia rogorc cinadrouli, ise misdroindeli saeklesio mcignobruli qartuli enisagan, igi ufro metad axlosaa xalxis sametyvelo enastan. am gansxvavebis gamo mas pirobitad „vefxistyaosnis qartulsac“ ucodeben. qartvelologta aghnishvnit, vefxistyaosani mnishvnelovani dokumentia sashuali qartulis saero metyvelebis shesascavlad[78].

vefxistyaosnis enisatvis gansakutrebit damaxasiatebelia is, rom aq ertmanetis gverdit gvxvdeba erti da imave sityvis rogorc axali, ise dzveli formebi. arnold chiqobavam daasabuta, rom vefxistyaosanshi sheinishneba dialeqtizmebi, rogorc dasavluri (magalitad aqana), ise aghmosavluri (magalitad daghma), tumca, misive tqmit, es dialeqtizmebi avtoriseuli araa da es zogadad imdroindeli saliteraturo enis tviseba iyo[79]. vefxistyaosnis qartuls, dzveli enisagan gansxvavebit, axasiatebs midrekileba sintaqsuri siaxlisa da simartivisadmi[80]. am mxriv gansakutrebit aghsanishnavia motxrobiti brunvis nishnis axali xmarebis cesi poemashi[81]. miuxedavad am siaxleebisa, rustavelis ena inarchunebs dzvel cesebsac, dzveli da axali formebi mis poemashi paraleluri formebis saxit gvxvdeba[82].

vefxistyaosnis qartuli metad tavisufali enaa; avtori xshirad qmnis axal sityvebs, neologizmebs (magalitad nagushindlevi, umisJamiso), saxelebs ki xshirad zmnebad aqcevs (iirmos, itxos, eageta da sxva)[83]. rustavelis mier gamoyenebuli uchveulo sityvebi zog shemtxvevashi gamocveulia leqsis sachiroebit, ritmisa da ritmis uket shecyobisatvis, tumca xshirad poeti sityvebis uchveulo formebs saleqso motxovnilebebis yovelgvari aucileblobis gareshec iyenebs[84]. vefxistyaosnis qartulisatvis chveulebrivi movlenaa e. c. didebulebis mravlobitoba, anu mxolobiti shinaarsis sityvebis dasma mravlobit ricxvshi gansakutrebuli pativiscemis gamosaxatavad[85].

rogorc mkvlevarebi aghnishnaven, rustvelis ena imdenadaa daaxloebuli xalxis metyvelebastan, rom igi martivad gasagebia da specialur ganmartebas ar sachiroebs. tumca aris ishviati gamonaklisebic, rodesac calkeuli sityvebisa da gamotqmebis shinaarsi daudgenelia da mat shesaxeb specialistebic ver tanxmdebian[86].
mxatvruli ena

vefxistyaosnis mxatvruli ena gamoircheva e. c. darbaisluri monumenturi stilit. poeti xshirad iyenebs iset mxatvrul xerxebs, rogoricaa metafora, shedareba, gameoreba, aliteracia, bunebis aghcerebi da sxva. rustavelis enisatvis damaxasiatebelia aforizmebis simravle.
metaforebi .
vefxistyaosanshi metaforebi imdenad uxvadaa, rom poemis mxatvrul enis stilad xshirad scored metaforulobas tvlian. azris gamoxatvis metaforuli xerxi vefxistyaosanshi umtavresi mxatvruli xerxia[87]. rustavelis zogierti metaforuli saxe, romelic yvelaze xshirad meordeba poemashi, sxvadasxva konteqstshi sxvadasxva mnishvnelobitaa gamoyenebuli. asetebia, magalitad: vardi, nargizi, melnis tba, mze, mtvare, margaliti, broli da sxva. vardi zogjer adamianis saxis calkeul nakvts gamoxatavs, zogjer ki mtel pirisaxes. magalitad, qvemot moyvanil nacyvetshi vardi pirs aghnishnavs, dzoc-margaliti ki kbilebs[88]:„ mun vardsa shua shvenodes dzoc-margalitni tyubani. “


mkvlevarta azrit, rustavelis metafora xels ucyobs azris scorad da moxdenilad chamoyalibebas. vefxistyaosnis metaforebi ar abundovneben teqstis shinaarss. aleqsandre baramidzis azrit rustveli ammxriv gansxvavdeba zogierti aghmosavleli poetisagan, romlebic romlebic „tvitmiznuri metaforizaciit“ arian gatacebulni[89].
epitetebi

vefxistyaosanshi uxvadaa epitetebic. magalitad, titqmis mtlianad epitetebitaa agebuli poemis dziritadi nacilis pirveli strofi, romelshic arabetis mefea daxasiatebuli:„ iyo arabets rostevan, mefe ghmrtisagan sviani
maghali, uxvi, mdabali, lashqar-mravali, ymiani,
mosamartle da mocyale, morchmuli, gangebiani,
tvit meomari uebro, kvla moubari cyliani. “


personaJebis aghcerisas xshirad gamoyenebulia shemdegi epitetebi: amayi, laghi, ukadri, kushti, mxne, laghadmavali, tanis mrxeveli, mxiaruli, morchmuli da sxva. vefxistyaosanshi gvxvdeba aseve uecari da originaluri epitetebic, rogoricaa, magalitad xma shaqrisferi[90]. xshiria e. c. mudmivi epitetebi, romlebsac ushualo mxatvruli ieri dakarguli aqvt: cxeli cremli an cecxli cxeli da sxva[91].
mxatvruli shedareba

poemashi bevria mxatvruli shedarebebic. xshiria originaluri, cocxali, realisturi shedarebebi, romlebshic aghbechdilia erovnuli, ubralo xalxis yofa-cxovreba. zogierti shedareba gamoircheva eqspresiulobit. aghsanishnavia, rom rustavelis mxatvrul shedarebebs xshirad hiperboluri xasiati aqvt, tumca vefxistyaosnis yoveli hiperboluri shedarebis safudzveli sinamdvilea da igi arasodes exeba fantastikur carmodgenebs[92].
gameoreba

vefxistyaosnisatvis ucxo araa epikuri da siuJeturi ganmeorebebic. siuJeturi ganmeorebebi poemashi mcirea, epikuri ki ufro xshirad gvxvdeba. siuJeturi ganmeorebis magalitia 993-999 strofebi[93], romlebshic poemis ert-erti mtavari gmiri — avtandili fridons mokled uambobs tarielis tavgadasavals. aghsanishnavia, rom es tavgadasavali mkitxvelisatvis ukv

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