Shetyobinebebi
1. ARSENAL-BOY[1886](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
08 Noem 12, 12:46:32

ilia chavchavadze (d. 8 noemberi, 1837, sofeli yvareli — g. 12 seqtemberi, 1907, cicamuri) — qartveli mcerali, poeti, publicisti, politikuri da sazogado moghvace, saqartvelos erovnul-ganmatavisuflebeli modzraobis lideri. qartuli martlmadidebeli samociqulo eklesiis mier ilia chavchavadze sheracxulia cmindanad, saxelit cminda ilia martali.

daibada gadamdgari oficris, tavad grigol chavchavadzis ojaxshi. 10 clisas gardaecvala deda — mariam beburishvili, 15 clisas — mama. daoblebuli iliasa da misi da-dzmebis movla-patronoba mamidam — makrine chavchavadze-eristavisam itvirta.
ganatleba
tbilisi 1848-1856 clebi
ilia gimnaziashi, 1848 c.

1848 clis ianvristvis grigol chavchavadzes tavisi meore vaJishvili mashindel ert-ert yvelaze sauketeso raevskis kerdzo pansionshi miubarebia. 1851 cels scavlis gasagrdzeleblad ilia tbilisis gimnaziis meotxe klasshi shevida. 1852 clis 10 dekembers, roca ilia tbilisshi ukve gimnazieli iyo, yvarelshi mamac gardaecvala. amis shemdeg mteli ojaxis tvirti da xuti oboli dzmisshvilis aghzrda-patronoba mamida makrines daacva mxrebze. scored am didi sulieri tkivilis gamoa dacerili chvenamde moghceuli ilias yrmobis droindeli, misi ert-erti poeturi cda “motqma sacylisa“. 15 clis gimnazielis cxovrebashi momxdar am ghrma tramvas sheidzleba mieceros is faqti, rom ilias am dros sagnebshi arasaxarbielo nishnebi miughia, ris gamoc igi gimnaziis imave meotxe klasshi dautovebiat. samagierod, 1853 cels ilias mdgomareoba sagrdznoblad gamouscorebia.
peterburgis universiteti 1857-1861 clebi

1857 clis ivlisshi ilia chavchavadze peterburgshi chavida da carmatebit chaabara universitetshi misaghebi gamocdebi (iuridiuli fakulteti). 1859 clis zafxulshi avadmyofi ilia ramdenime tvit chamosula saqartveloshi gamosajanmrteleblad da aq shemodgomamde darchenila. ilias studentobis drois shesaxeb moipoveba mogonebani ilias megobris koxta afxazisa, romelic iliastan ertad scavlobda, rogorc gimnaziashi, ise universitetshic, da niko nikoladzisa, romelic ilias shemdeg chavida peterburgshi. niko nikoladzis dros peterburgis studentobashi jer kidev cocxali iyo xsovna student ilias shesaxeb, romelic peterburgis qartveli studentobis yvelas mier aghiarebul xelmdzghvanelad itvleboda.

koxta afxazi gadmogvcems:“universitetshi ilias gansakutrebit politikuri da ekonomiuri samecniero sagnebi ainteresebda. ....... chven studentebi, xshirad vikribebodit da vbaasobdit rogorc sazogado kitxvebze, agretve chvens dabechavebuls samshoblos momavalze. vkitxulobdit xshirad qartul cignebs“.

ilias studentobis xana peterburgshi daemtxva revoluciebisa da erovnul-gamantavisuflebeli omebis, mati mudmivi gamodzaxilis periods dasavlet evropis qveynebshi. axalgazrda ilia, tavisi damonebuli samshoblos momaval bedze fiqrit moculi, mghelvarebit adevnebda tvalyurs erovnul-ganmantavisuflebel modzraobas evropashi. rodesac 1860 clis gazafxulze garibaldim aigho mesina, xolo shemdeg italiis naxevarkundzulze gadmovida, ilia amas aghfrtovanebuli miesalma leqsit: “mesmis, mesmis sanatreli, xalxt borkilis xma mtvrevisa...“

ilias dros peterburgis universitetshi scavlobda ocdaatamde qartveli studenti. ilias garshemo shemokrebili qartveli studentoba sheadgenda im birtvs, romelmac saqartveloshi dabrunebis shemdeg, sheadgina “pirveli dasi“.

ilias dros sheiqmna rusetshi qartveli studentobis - “tergdaleulta“ tradiciebi.

1857-1861 clebi arachveulebrivad uxvi gamodga studenti ilia chavchavadzistvis shemoqmedebiti nayofierebis tvalsazrisit.

studentobis 4 celi uaghresad mnishvnelovani aghmochnda chavchavadzis rogorc pirovnebisa da moqalaqis, moazrovnisa da mcerlis formirebisa da srulyofisatvis, misi progresuli socialuri-progresuli, filosofiuri da estetikuri mrcamsis shemushavebisatvis. igi imtavitve intensiurad da safudzvlianad scavlobda saqartvelos istoriasa da qartul mcerlobas. rusul da evropel mceralta da mecnierta memkvidreobas; gatacebit daecafa rusi revolucioner demokratebis — belinskis, gercenis, dobroliubovis, chernishevskis naazrevs, rac daukavshira sakutari xalxis progresisatvis brdzolis miznebsa da amocanebs.
shemoqmedeba [redaqtireba] es statia an ganyofileba dacerilia eseisturad da sachiroebs gamartvas.
gtxovt dagvexmarot statiis gamartvashi da gadacerot igi enciklopediur stilshi.




1859-1872 clebshi daicera chavchavadzis dzlieri mxatvruli individualobit aghbechdili da mdzafri moqalaqeobrivi patosit gamschvaluli, farto sazogadoebrivi rezonansis mqone nacarmoebebi, romeltac aghmavali etapi sheqmnes XIX saukune|XIX saukunis qartul literaturasa da saertod qartuli mxatvruli azrovnebis istoriashi: poema „achrdili“ (pirveli redaqcia, 1859), romelic umcvaves erovnul da socialur problemebze cuxilis nayofia da nateli mermisis rcmenitaa ganmschvaluli; erovnul-ganmatavisuflebeli ideebit shtagonebuli dramatuli poema "qartlis deda". „scena momaval cxovrebidan“ (pirveli redaqcia, 1860); poema „kako yachaghi“ — „ramdenime surati anu epizodi yachaghis cxovrebidan“ (1860) — mdzafri protesti batonymobis cinaaghmdeg; amave periods ganekutvneba rogorc chavchavadzis poeturi targmanebi ( shileris, haines, riukertis, baironis, skotis, shenies, pushkinisa da lermontovis nacarmoebisa) da satrfialo lirikis udidesi nacili, aseve progresuli socialur da erovnul idealebita da mxatvruli siaxleebit aghbechdili sayoveltaod cnobili leqsebi „xma samaridan“ (1857), „gutnis-deda“, „qartvlis deda“, „chemi tariaghali“ (samive 1858), „nana“ (1859), „qartvel studentebis simghera“, „musha“, „ianichari“ (samive 1860); patriotuli lirikis brcyinvale nimushebi — „elegia“ (1859), „mesmis, mesmis“ (1860), „gazafxuli“ („tyem moisxa fotoli“…, 1861); „poeti“ (1860), romelshic natlad aris chamoyalibebuli chavchavadzis shexeduleba poetis sazogadoebrivi misiis shesaxeb.



amave xanebshi iqmneba chavchavadzis mxatvruli prozis shesanishnavi nimushebi, ramac udidesi roli sheasrula qartuli kritikuli realizmis ganvitarebashi: batonymuri institutis mankierebata mamxilebeli motxroba „glaxis naambobi“ (I—IV tavebi, 1859) da eskizebi motxrobisa „kacia-adamiani?!“, sadac mebatoneta gadagvarebuli da sasikvdilod ganciruli klasis uazro da ushinaarso, mconaruli yofis maghalmxatvruli satiruli asaxva saertod adamianis, misi zneobis, misi cxovrebis azris zogadkacobriul problemebze dagvafiqrebs. chavchavadzis pirvelma literaturul-kritikulma cerilma «oriode sityva tavad revaz shalvas dzis eristavis mier kazlovidgan „sheshlilis“ targmnazeda» („ciskari“, 1861) axali taobis literaturuli manifestis mnishvneloba sheidzina. masshi, iseve rogorc cerilebshi „pasuxi“ (1861) da „saqartvelos moambezed“ (1863), natlad aris chamoyalibebuli realisturi mcerlobisa da saliteraturo kritikis dziritadi principebi, xelovnebisa da literaturis arsisa da sazogadoebrivi danishnulebis, obieqturi sinamdvilisadmi mxatvruli literaturis mimartebis materialisturi gageba, dasabutebuli saliteraturo enis ganmartivebis, saerto-sax. enastan misi daaxloebis aucilebloba. „oriode sityva“… iqca „mamebisa“ da „shvilebis“ brdzolis sacyisad.
samshobloshi moghvaceoba

xangrdzlivi ganshorebis shemdeg, 1861 cels ilia chavchavadze rusetidan saqartveloshi dabrunda. samshoblostan shexvedris molodinit aghdzruli fiqrebi, misi chirvaramis, misi „dauyuchebeli tkivilebis“ mcvave gancda da mzadyofna mistvis ertgulad msaxurebis mxatvrulad aisaxa „mgzavris cerilebshi“, romelic ara marto avtoris an „tergdaleulebis“ miznebsa da amocanebs, aramed mteli qartveli xalxis sasicocxlo motxovnilebebs, sazogadod erovnul-ganmatavisuflebeli modzraobis ucmindes idealebs gamoxatavda da mizandasaxuli aqtivobis, moqmedebisa da brdzolis cyurvilita da mocodebit iyo ganmschvaluli. am xanebshi chavchavadze gatacebit agrovebda qartuli xalxuri zepirsityvierebis nimushebs.



1863 chavchavadzis mier daarsebuli Jurnali „saqartvelos moambe“, miuxedavad umdzimesi sacenzuri pirobebisa, erovnul-ganmatavisuflebeli modzraobis cheshmarit medroshed iqca.

1863 cels ilia daqorcinda olgha guramishvilze.

1864 „nivtieri saghsaris mosapoveblad“ mushaoba daicyo jer qutaisis general-gubernatoris sagangebo mindobilobata moxeled, shemdeg — saqartveloshi saglexo reformis gatarebastan dakavshirebit — momrigebel shuamavlad aghmosavlet saqartveloshi. 1868—1873 mushaobda dushetis mazris momrigebel mosamartled. am xanebshi dacera man „glexta gantavisuflebis pirveli droebis scenebi“ (1865), gadaamushava „qartvlis deda“ (1871) da „achrdili“ (1872), daasrula mushaoba didi xnis cin chafiqrebul „mgzavris cerilebsa“ (1871) da „glaxis naambobze“ (1872), amave periodshi sheiqmna erovnuli cylulebis mtkivneuli aghqmit gamocveuli mcvave satiruli leqsebi — „ra vaketet, ras vshvrebodit anu saqartvelos istoria mecxramete saukunisa“ da „bednieri eri“ (orive 1871), qartuli patriotuli lirikis ubrcyinvalesi qmnilebatagani — „chemo kargo qveyanav, razed mogicyenia“ (1872); satirul-publicisturi leqsebi „gamocanebi“, „kidev gamocanebi“ da „pasuxis pasuxi“ (1871—1872).

1873-idan tbilisshi damkvidrebuli ilia chavchavadze aqtiurad chaeba farto praqtikul sazogadoebriv saqmianobashi, romlebsac bolo clebshi ramdenadme chamocilebuli iyo. 1875 airchies tavmjdomared satavadaznauro saadgil-mamulo bankisa, romelic chavchavadzis moghvaceobis shedegad faqtobrivad qartul erovnul bankad iqca da udides finansur daxmarebas ucevda yvela dziritad kulturul tu saganmanatleblo dacesebulebas saqartveloshi. 1881-idan chavchavadze iyo misive iniciativit daarsebuli qartuli dramatuli sazogadoebis tavmjdomare, 1879—1885 — „qartvelta shoris cera-kitxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis“ tavmjdomaris moadgile, 1885-idan sicocxlis dasasrulamde sazogadoebis ucvleli tavmjdomare da sxv.
„iveria“ [redaqtireba] mtavari statia : iveria (gazeti).




1877 cels man daaarsa progresuli perioduli gamocema — „iveria“, romelic sami ateuli clis mandzilze saqartvelos erovnuli, sulieri da inteleqtualuri cxovrebis ert-erti dziritadi centri iyo. 1873 chavchavadzem i. machabeltan ertad targmna sheqspiris „mefe liri“; 1878 daamtavra istoriuli poema „dimitri tavdadebuli“, romelic samshoblosatvis tavgancirvis patriotuli ideis gacxovelebas emsaxureboda; 1882—1883 sheqmna ghrma filosofiuri shinaarsis poema „gandegili“, romelshic sulisa da xorcis, cxovrebis migheba-armighebis maradiuli problemaa dasmuli da romlis mxatvruli logikit dagmobilia qveynisagan, cxovrebisagan gandgoma; adamianis danishnulebad da movaleobad dasaxulia ama soflisatvis zrunva. qartveli eris aghordzinebis imeditaa ganmschvaluli leqsi „bazaletis tba“ (1833). 1887 chavchavadzem sheqmna reformis shemdegdroindeli qartuli sinamdvilis amsaxveli txzuleba „otaraant qvrivi“, romelshic qartveli dedis shtambechdavi saxe saertod qartveli xalxis sulieri dzlierebis, misi sheupovrobisa da qeduxrelobis simbolod aghiqmeba.

1870—1890-ian clebshi daicera chavchavadzis dzlieri inteleqtit, enciklopediuri codnit, faqtebisa da movlenebis gansjisa da ganzogadebis ishviati unarit aghbechdili mravali nashromi da cerili literaturatmcodneobis («akaki cereteli da „vefxistyaosani“», 1887 da sxv.), saqartvelos istoriis („ai, istoria“, 1889; „qvata ghaghadi“, 1899 da sxv.); ekonomikis („kerdzo da satemo micatmflobeloba“, „xiznebis saqme“, orive 1886 da sxv.), saxalxo meurneobis (mevenaxeobisa da meghvineobis, soflis meurneobis tvirfasi kulturebis, melioraciis, mesaqonleobis, mrecvelobis da sxv.), sabanko saqmisa da finansebis sakitxebze; cerilebi ucxoetze — evropisa da aghmosavletis politikaze da sxv.


ilia chavchavadzem tavis publicistur shemoqmedebasa da sazogadoebriv moghvaceobashi didi adgili dautmo saxalxo ganatlebisa da mozardi taobis aghzrdis sakitxebs, ramac fudzemdebluri roli sheasrula qartul pedagogiur mecnierebisa da qartul saxalxo erovnuli skolis chamoyalibebis saqmeshi. chavchavadze mkacrad akritikebda carizmis saganmanatleblo politikas. igi, rogorc erovnul-ganmatavisuflebeli modzraobis metauri, erovnebis burjis- qartuli enis — dacvisatvis brdzolas mchidrod ukavshirebda mshobliur enaze scavlebis, saxalxo skolebis qslis zrdis motxovnebs, rac progresul-demokratiuli pedagogiuri mosazrebit iyo nakarnaxevi. dghesac aqtualuria chavchavadzis ideebi aghzrdisa da ganatlebis organuli kavshiris, gonebrivi, zneobrivi, estetikuri, shromiti da fizikuri aghzrdis shesaxeb igi gansakutrebul rols anichebda mascavleblis pirovnebas da mis pirad magalits. dghemde ar daukargavs mnishvneloba chavchavadzis shexedulebas ojaxshi aghzrdis shesaxeb: „…gazrda shvilisa iseti movaleobaa, rom sxva yvelaferi amas unda shevcirot, amas unda shevaliot…“ („pedagogiuri txzulebani“, tbilisi, 1938, gv. 353). fasdaudebelia chavchavadzis moghvaceoba saqartveloshi profesiuli da umaghlesi ganatlebis organizaciisa da qalta umaghlesi ganatlebis ganxorcielebis saqmeshi. igi zrunvasa da shemceobas ar aklebda ucxoetshi myof qartvel studentebs. saxalxo ganatlebisa da pedagogiur sakitxebze mravali nashromi dagvitova, m. sh. gansakutrebuli adgili uchiravs fundamentur nashroms: „pedagogikis safudzvlebi“ (1888).

ilia chavchavadze iyo ara marto mxatvruli sityvis didostati-poeti, beletristi, dramaturgi, mtargmneli; ara marto saliteraturo enis reformatori da kanonmdebeli, qartuli kritikuli realizmis, realisturi kritikisa da mebrdzoli publicistikis fudzemdebeli, aramed aseve — didi masshtabisa da farto diapazonis mkvlevari, romlis interesebi mecnierebis araert dargs moicavda; misi praqtikuli moghvaceoba ki saqartvelos sazogadoebriv-kulturuli cxovrebis yvela mnishvnelovan ubans scvdeboda da mat carmatebebshi gansazghvrul rols asrulebda.
erovnuli modzraoba



mteli tavisi naxevarsaukunovani moghvaceobit chavchavadze diadi miznis ganxorcielebas — qartveli xalxis konsolidacias, erovnuli tvitshegnebis gamococxlebasa da amaghlebas, erovnul-saxelmcifoebrivi damoukideblobisatvis brdzolas emsaxureboda. chavchavadze iyo XIX saukunis II naxevris saqartvelos udidesi erovnuli moghvace, qartveli eris erovnul-ganmatavisuflebeli da ganmanatlebeli modzraobis sulischamdgmeli da cinamdzgholi. ucinares yovlisa, amashia misi epoqaluri damsaxureba saqartvelos cinashe.

mocinave erovnulma ideebma, eris gadarchenis gzebis dziebam chavchavadzisa da mis tanamoazreta shemoqmedebashi sheidzina mcyobri da tanamimdevruli koncefciis saxe, romelic mteli eris qmedebisa da brdzolis natlad gaazrebul programad iqca da romlis saboloo mizans erovnuli chagvrisgan tavisufali da socialurad tanascori sazogadoebis asheneba carmoadgenda. chavchavadze mecinave iyo mat shoris, vinc qartul sinamdvileshi aseti sazogadoebis ashenebisa da mshobeli qveynis bednieri momavlis rcmena danerga.

1905 cels iliam sheadgina programa, romlis safudzvelze 1917 cels daarsda saqartvelos erovnul-demokratiuli partia. am organizaciis dafudznebis sulischamdgmeli gaxldat ilia chavchavadzis dis shvili, imxanad qartl-kaxetis tavadaznaurobis marshali, generali konstantine (kote) afxazi.

1906 saxelmcifo sabchos cevrad archeulma ilia chavchavadzem ganacxada: „saxelmcifo sabchoshi tu tavadaznaurta saxelit shevdivar, es mxolod formaluri, iuridiuli mxarea. ar davfarav da vityvi: sabchoshi mtel saqartvelos da qartvelta interesebis damcveli viqnebi“.
mkvleloba



1907 cels rusetis pirvel dumashi (saxelmcifo sabcho) samsaxuris shemdeg, iliam gadacyvita saqartvelos dabrunebuliyo. amave clis 28 agvistos tbilisidan saguramosken mimaval iliasa da olghas cicamurtan eqvskaciani jgufi daesxa tavs. tavdamsxmelebma ilia mokles da miimalnen.

ilias mkvlelobis detalebi dghemde kamatis sagania. istoriul dokumentebze dayrdnobit ilias mkvleloba chafiqrebuli hqondat social-demokratebsa da bolshevikebs, ilias mier mati revoluciuri gzebis dagmobisa da xalxshi misi usazghvro popularobis gamo. meore msoflio omis periodshi ertma moxucma kacma aghiara, rom rusetis Jandarmeriam daiqirava ilias mosaklavad. sabchota periodshi xelmdzghvanelobam mkvlelobis gamodzieba daicyo, romelmac mogvianebit daaskvna, rom mefis xelisuflebis saidumlo policia da administracia iyvnen chareuli ilias mkvlelobashi.

ilias mkvleloba qartvelma xalxma erovnul tragediad miichnia. mis dakrdzalvaze akaki ceretelma, romelic im periodshi dzlier avadmyofobda, carmotqva: "ilias fasdaudebeli cvlili qartveli eris aghordzinebashi momavali taobebistvis nimushis mimcemia". vaJa-fshavela cerda: „ilias mkvlelebs rom sheedzlot, saqartvelos mohklavdnen.“ 1987 cels saqartvelos martlmadideblurma eklesiam ilia cmindanad sheracxa. saxelit cminda ilia martali.
memkvidreoba

iliam sicocxleshive moipova mocinave qartveli sazogadoebriobis saerto aghiareba, ughrmesi pativiscema da dafaseba, xolo misi mocamebrivi sikvdilis shemdeg tandatan sul ufro mkafiod gamoikveta bumberazi moazrovnisa da mxatvris namoghvacaris, misi mdidari da mravalferovani shemoqmedebis maghali ghirebulebis, im didmnishvnelovani misiis cheshmariti azri, romelic man qartveli xalxis sulier da gonebriv aghordzinebashi sheasrula.

dakrdzalulia tbilisshi, sazogado moghvaceta mtacmindis panteonshi.
1 Madlobeli momxmareblebi.

2. maximus[638](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
08 Noem 12, 13:21:43
am dres daibada didi bumberazi qartveli chveni ilia.
3. MARI[7348](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
07 Ivl 14, 0:23:53
http://geoforum.ge/viewtopic.php?t=3730

es tema daxurulia, tqven ver dacert pasuxs da verc daaredaqtirebt tqvens gzavnils.
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