cmida didmocame qetevani mnatobi saqartvelosi | GeoForum.Ge
Shetyobinebebi
1. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 0:58:03
wmida didmowame qeTevani-mnaTobi saqarTvelosi

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XVII saukune sheidzleba itqvas umdzimesi saukune iyo qartveli eris istoriashi. tu cina saukuneebshi mtrebi saqartvelos dapyrobit, anda daxarkvit kmayofildebodnen, am dros sparsetisa da osmaletis imperiebma yvelaferi ighones qartveli eris gasanadgureblad da micis pirisagan aghsagvelad: aseul atasobit qartveli saqartveloshive daxoces, ufro metisparetshi gadaasaxles. kaxeti gaaukacrieles, da momtabare turqmanuli tomebi chamoasaxles, mesxetshi adgilobrivi mosaxleoba idzulebit gaamahmadianes(gaatatres), mocinaaghmdegeni mospes anda aidzules gadasaxlebuliyvnen. dasavlet saqartvelo ki uchveulo da enit utqmelma anarqiam moicva, daicyo tyveta syidva, mtrebtan ertad qartvelebi masiurad atyvevebdnen qartvelebs da monebad hyiddnen. im dros roca evropashi mecniereba ayvavda da sazogadoebrivi cxovreba pirovnebis tavisuflebas daefudzna, qartvelebi afrikelta msgavsad monata bazrebshi iyidebodnen, tumca isic unda aghinishnos, rom osmalet-sparsetis saxelmcifoebs monata bazarze qartvelebtan ertad bosnielebi, albanelebi da evropashi dapyrobili sxva xalxebic gahyavda, kavkasielebze rom araferi vtqvat.
Yyovelive amas tan daerto chrdilokavkasieli tomebis chamosaxleba dasustebul da gaukacrielebul saqartveloshi. aghmosavlet kaxetshi daghestnelebi aramarto chasaxldnen, aramed isini imonebdnen, arbevdnen, dzarcvavdnen da tyveebad hyiddnen mkvidr qartvelobas, shida qartlis mtianetshi gaosebuli dvalebi chamovidnen chrdilo kavkasiidan, adgilobriv qartvelobasa da shemosulta shoris cinaaghmdegoba qartvelta damarcxebit da shemosul carmartul tomtan asimilaciist damtavrda, shida qartlis mtianeti gaucxovda, analogiuri vitareba sheiqmna egris-afxazetshi, aqac chrdilokavkasielebi-adigheelebi(abazebi, afsarebi, cherqezebi) damkvidrdnen.
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2 Madlobeli momxmareblebi.

2. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 0:58:48
mosaxleoba idzulebit gaamahmadianes(gaatatres), mocinaaghmdegeni mospes anda aidzules gadasaxlebuliyvnen. dasavlet saqartvelo ki uchveulo da rogorc saqartvelos barshi, aseve mtashi qartvelad yofna gausadzlisi gaxda. erovnebit qartveloba ushishroebis aravitar garantias ar idzleoda. spars-osmalos, misi ayra xocva-jleta da gadasaxleba. Xolo shemosul mtielebs dzarcva da ojaxis amocyveta xelecifeboda. chxadia asset dros gadarchenis instinqti amoqmedda-qartvelobis erti nacili erovnebis uaryofis gzas daadga, gatatreba gadarchenis ert-ert mtavar sashualebad iqca (gansakutrebit mesxetshi) qartvelebi somxdebodnen (grigorianuli sarcmunoebis mimdevar qristianebs sparset-osmaleti ar sdevnida) qartvelebi `frangdebodnen~(katolikeebic naklebad idevnebodnen) XVII saukunis micurulsa da XVIII s.-is dasacyisshi iseti momentic ki dadga, rom mteli KAkaxetis mosaxleoba galekebisken miiscrafoda, rac kargad chans davit II imamyuli xanis mravalricxovani cerilebidan vaxtang VI sadmi.
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3. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 0:59:21
XVII saukune sheidzleba itqvas umdzimesi saukune iyo qartveli eris istoriashi. tu cina saukuneebshi mtrebi saqartvelos shabednierod, denacionalizaciisa da erovnuli gadagvarebis sfrtxes qartvelebis didi nacili mtkiced aghudga cin. qartuli saxelmcifo da qartuli eklesia rcmenisa da erovnulobis shenarchunebisatvis tavdadebita da tavdauzogavad ighvcoda. saqme is iyo, rom am droisatvis erovneba da sarcmunoeba gaertmnishvnelovanda.rogorc ilia ჭavჭavadze ambobs- `qristianoba qristes modzghvrebis garda, chvenshi nishnavda mtels saqartvelos mica-cyals, nishnavda qartvelobas~ aqedan gamomdinare qristianobis dacva da shenarchuneba-ukve tavistavad qartvelobis dacva shenarchunebasac nishnavda.
Amitomac erta shorisi omi faqtiurad religiata shoris omad gadaiqca. mahmadianuri sparset-osmaleti da kavkasionis mtianeti saqartveloshi qristianobis mospoba-aghmofxvras escrafvodnen. tavis mxriv, saqartvelos sauketeso shvilebi qristianobis dacva-shenarchunebas cdilobdnen da amisatvis sicocxles ar zogavdnen. saqartvelos gadarchenashi udidesi ghvacli miudzghvis saqartvelos samociqulo eklesias.
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4. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 1:00:00
unda aghinishnos, rom qartveli eris gadarchenashi udidesi ghvacli miudzghvis saqartvelos samociqulo eklesias. saqme isaa, rom erovnebas mxolod is inarchunebda, vinc tavs mshobliuri martlmadidebeli eklesiis shvilad tvlida. magalitad, grigoriani qartvelebi titqos qristianuli sarcmunoebis aghmsarebelni iyvnen, magram deda qartuli eklesiisgan mocyvetis gamo tandatan gasomxdnen. igive itqmis katolike qartvelebzec, rogorc tamarashvilma da sxva moghvaceebma gamoarkvies, denacionalizacias verc katolike qartvelebi ascdnen, tumca ki, mati erti-saqartveloshi mcxovrebi nacili nacili am safrtxes gadaurcha, radgan qartveloba faqtiurad mxolod saqartvelos samociqulo eklesiis cecrebma sheinarchunes, amitomac `martlmadidebeli~ da `qartveli~ sinonimebad iqcnen.
qartveli eris am sashineli gansacdelis zhams sarcmunoebis dacvisatvis gaaftrebul brdzolashi udidesi mnishvneloba eniჭeboda magalitis dzalas. imdroindel sazogadoebashi maghali fenebi, mefe-dedoflebi, mtavrebi, tavadaznauroba da mati ojaxis cevrebi samagalitoni iyvnen mosaxleobis dabali, mravalricxovani fenebisatvis, tu maghali fenebi qristianobas icavdnen, dabali fenebic aseve iqceodnen. maghali fenebis gamahmadianebas, dabali fenebis gamahmadianebac moyveboda xolme shedegad. vaxushti bagrationi tavis `istoriashi~ cers: `tumca carchinebulni (igulisxmeba mesxetis maghali fena XVII s. 50-ian clebshi) mahmadianni iyvnen, aramed colni matni da mxevalni iyvnen yovelni qristianeni. xolo zhamsa rostom fashisasa miuvlina xontqarman brdzaneba, rata iyvnen colnica matni, romelni mahmadian arian, mahmadianad. ese utxres colsa fashisasa... aidzulebdnen yofad mahmadianad... amis mizezisatvis ityoda `uketu daatovebinot yovelta carchinebulta colta ucina cemsa qriste, merme dauteo meca, uketu ara, arca me~ mashin sheutqves ra carchinebulta colta mas yovelta moshishtatvis tanjvisa dauteves qriste da gamahmadiandnen yovelni sruliad da ughono qmnili gamahmadianda igica, aramed iqmna risxva ghvtisa codvata chventatvis, rametu ac umetes mooxrdebodnen eklesiani didshvenierni da iqmnebodnen pirutyvta sadgurni... moispobodnen epizkoposni, tu sadme iyo da monazonni da mcyemsni…da sheiqmna sruliad mahmadianoba cesita da rjulita matita~
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5. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 1:01:00
aseti vitarebis dros gansakutrebitaa dasafasebeli kaxetis dedoflis qetevanis tavdadeba sarcmunoebisatvis. XVII saukunis magaliti uchvenebs, rom rac ufro metad utevdnen saqartvelos mtrebi qristianobasa da qartvelobas, mit ufro met cinaaghmdegobas ucevda qartveloba. cminda didmocame qetevans `saqartvelos mnatobi~ ecoda, radganac qveynisatvis umdzimes XVII-XVIII saukuneebshi misi ghvacli da mocameoba mteli qartveli xalxisatvis magalitad, erisa da mamulis gadarchenis da gzis machveneblad iqca.
cminda qetevani qartuli eklesiisa da da qristianobis moyvarul morcmuneta ojaxshi daibada. qartleli bargationi ashotan muxranbatoni, mama qetevanisa, saberdznetshi (im droisatvis osmalta imperiashi moqceuli) ivironis monastristvis zrunavda(ivironis berebma daadastures, rom ivironis portaitisas(karis ghvtismshoblis) sascaultmoqmedi xatis mcire tadzari ashotan muxranbatonis mieraa agebuli. atonis monastrebisatvis qetevanis meughlis-kaxetis mefis ojaxic zrunavda. ivirontan axlos filoteos monasteries satrapezoshi gamoxatulni arian kaxta mefe levani da dze misi aleqsandre. (kaxta mefre aleqsandre mamatili iyo qetevan dedoflisa) qetevani iyo meughle kaxetis samefo taxtis memkvidrisa-davitisa.
aleqsandres dros kaxetis samefo saqartvelos sxva samefo-samtavroebtan shedarebit mdidari qveyana iyo. XVI saukuneshi kaxetis mefeebma tavianti moqnili politikit shedzles samefosatvis ucxoelta shemosevebi aeridebinat, amitomac kaxeti XVI saukuneshi sakmaod moshenebuli feodaluri samefo iyo… xelsayrel pirobebshi kaxeti XVIs. dacinaurda, moshenda da am saukunis dasasrulisatvis sxva qartul samefo-samtavrota shoris is yvelaze mdidar da ketilmocyobil feodalur samefod iqca. kaxeti dayofil iqna otx samxedro teritoriul erteulad-sadroshod, magram sadroshoebis sardloba kaxetis mefem tavadta gvarebs ki ar chaabara, rogorc es qartlshi moxda, aramed episkoposebs, episkoposoba ki samemkvidro tanamdeboba ar yofila. episkoposebi mefis mier inishnebodnen da saeklesio ymebisa da micebis gamoyenebis saqmeshi mefis mfarvelobas didad saჭiroebdnen, amis gamo episkoposebi mefis ufro ertgulni iyvnen, vidre saero didbatonebi... tavisi mamis politikas carmatebit ganagrdzobda aleqsandre levanis dze, kaxta mefe (1574-1605). aleqsandre mdidari da dzlieri mefe iyo. mcdeloba tavidanve mefisa iyos is, rom ufro metad aeghordzinebina kaxeti politikurad-materialuradac, ashenebda da aghadgenda shemosevebisgan dangreul nashtebs, cixe qalaqebs/ eklesia-monastrebs.. saboloo jamshi kaeti iseti mtkice da gamagrebuli samefo gaxda, rom moutmeneli iyo mtrebisatvis, amitomac shah-abasma kak-eniseli (saingilo) chamoacila da ushualod daimorchila. amit kaxets aghmosavletis kedeli moerghva. am droisatvis sashamxlos (chrdilo kavkasiashi mdebare samtavros) ukve miertebuli qonda piraqeta daghestani, romelic am dromde titqmis yoveltvis an ertiani saqartvelos saxemcifos sazghvrebs shignit, an kidev kaxetis samefos sazghvrebshi iyo moqceuli. piraqeta daghestanisa da kak-eniselis dakargvis shemdgom kaxetis samefo daucveli, aghmosavletis sazghvebmoshlili aghmochnda. chrdiloel (daghestnel) da aghmosavlel turqmanul tomebs mdidari qveynisken gza gaexsnat.
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6. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 1:02:20
miuxedavad amisa, osmaletis damokidebuleba saqartvelos samefo samtavrosadmi ar iyo ertgvari. dasavlet saqartvelos samefo samtavroebi sashinao politikashi damoukideblobas inarchunebdnen, qartlis mtavar cixeebshi osmalta garnizonebi idgnen, magram qartli qeds ar idrekda, medgrad ibrdzoda osmalo dampyroblebis cinaaghmdeg. kaxetis samefo mtertagan tavisufali iyo, tumca ki ertdroulad sami didi saxelmcifos-iranis, sparsetisa da rusetis vasali gaxda, amasobashi amierkavkasiashi vitareba sagrdznoblad sheicvala.1603 cels shah- abasma (1578-1608) omi gamoucxada osmalets.... iranis saxelmcifos centralizaciisatvis dzalze didi mnishvneloba hqonda shah-abasis mier chatarebul samxedro reformas.... sheqmna tofebita da zarbaznebit sheiaraghebuli kargad gacvrtnili mudmivi jari, romlis shemadgenlobashi shedioda ghulamta atiatasiani cxenosani korpusi. es korpusi shahis gvardia iyo. igi iranshi gazrdili da dzalit gamahmadianebuli qartveli da somexi axalgazrdebisagan daakompleqtes.
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7. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 1:02:40
shah-abass dzalze afrtxobda da aghizianebda kaxetis samefos kavshiri rusettan da osmalettan, amitomac gadacyvita es urchi samefo iaraghis gamouyeneblad, samefo ojaxshi gadatrielebis gzit sabolood daemorchilebina. am mznis misaghcevad man tavisi aghzrdili gamahmadianebul-gasparebuli aleqsandre mefis dze konstantine gamoiyena. beri egnatishvili cers `xolo amas shahabazs scadoda dapyroba saqartveloisa da mravali ghone da xerxi ixmara da cdilobda ratamca daepyra saqartvelo da ver shedzlo, moipova ghone esevitri: romeli mieca kaxt batonsa aleqsandres dze tavisi konstantine. ese gaezarda shahabazs da gaecuarta sjulsa zeda mahmadisasa. da ama konstantines xelit gaugzavna xalati mamasa missa aleqsandres da gaatana tana jari da shirvaneli. da esret daabara: davit xom momkvdara da da sxva arghara darchomila mamis shenis meti, cadi mokal mama-sheni da dzma sheni da kaxetic shen daiჭire....~
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8. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 1:03:09
shahis mzakvruli gegma asrulda-kaxetis mironcxebuli mefe da misi dze mokles. kaxeti mahmadian konstantines darcha, romelmac mokluli mamisa da dzmis moჭrili tavebi shah-abass gaugzavna. shahma omisa da lashqrobis gareshe shedzlo kaxetis iranis nacilad qceva, radganac konstantines gamefeba scored imaze metyvelebda, rom kaxeti ukve iranis saxano iyo. shahi zeimobda. magram misi sixaruli naadrevi gamodga. es sixaruli kaxetis dedofalma qetevanma chaushxama. is ajanyda da sruliad kaxeti miimxro. ajanyebulebma konstantine daamarcxes da mokles.
kargad chans rom am dros gadaemtera qetevan dedofals shahi radganac misi mzakvruli gegmebi saqartvelos mimart scored man chaushala. shah-abasi idzulebuli gaxda kaxetis uflisculi teimurazi samshobloshi daebrunebina.
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9. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 1:03:39
ramdenime clit adre 1602 cels, qetevani idzulebuli iyo tavisi dze teimurazi iranshi gaegzavna. saqme is iyo, rom 1601 cels aleqsandre mefis avadmyofobisas taxtze qetevanis meughle daviti avida, romelic mefobis kanonieri pretendenti iyo, magram mas samefo taxtistvis dzma, giorgi sheebrdzola. giorgi batonishvilma shemdegac moacyo shetqmuleba davit mefis cinaaghmdeg, ristvisac misi momxreni sastikad dasajes, xolo tviton giorgi mcxetashi gaiqca da katalikoss sheafara tavi. aleqsandre mefes, romelic am dros monazvnad iyo aghkvecili sastikad daucyevlia davit mefe. 1602 cels davit mefe gardaicvala. taxtze kvlav konstantine avida. tavisi sayvareli dze giorgi batonishvili gverdit amoiyena. radganac giorgi batonishvili taxtis memkvidred itvleboda, amitomac mastan rusetis elchoba molaparakebebsac acarmoebda xolme, rac shahisatvis cnobili iyo, rogorc varaudoben, scored mas gaugzavnia teimurazi da misi da elene iranshi `qartlis cxovrebis~ tanaxmad ki teimurazi qetevans gaugzavnia shahtan.
mefe aleqsandres mokvlis shemdeg konstantines gabatonebam kaxeti yizilbashebis anu gatatrebis safrtxis cinashe daayena. dedofali qetevani sataveshi chaudga kaxel didebulebs, romelnic ajanyebistvis farulad emzadebodnen. male konstantinem kaxetis atiatasiani lashqrit (yizilbashebtan ertad) shirvanshi ilashqra da shaqis provincia osmaltagan gaatavisufla. scored mashin daapires ajanyebulma qartvelebma konstantines mokvla, magram man gaascro, jari sheagrova da kaxetshi sheiჭra, am gasaჭiris zhams kaxetis qartvelobas qartlelebi mieshvelnen papuna amilaxvris sardlobit. belaqnis cyaltan brdzolashi qartvelebma gaimarjves da moghalate konstantine mokles.
anton katalikosis tanaxmad qartvelebis da gansakutrebit dedoflis aghshfoteba imas gamoucvevia, rom konstantines sparsuli cesebis momizezedbit qetevanis, tavisi dzmis qvrivis colad shertva mousurvebia: `uqvemoes eshmakta tana mdgomareman konstantine moigona sxvaica usjuloebai... vitarmed acvia cmidasa qetevansa, dzmis colsa tvissa, colad tvisad moyvanebai...~
konstantines mokvlis shemdeg kaxetis samefos qetevan dedofali chaudga sataveshi. shah-abass qetevanis elchebi miuvidnen stumrad da ertguleba shehfices da kaxetis mefed teimurazi stxoves. shahi mixvda, rom kaxeti ubrdzolvelad tavisuflebas ar datmobda, misi dzalit gatexa ki osmalettan omis pirobebshi advili saqme ar iyo da amitom man droebit ukan daixia, kaxetis mefed qristiani teimurazi daamtkica. uxvad daasachuqra da kaxetshi gamoushva.
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10. LORD[4206](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
22 Ivn 11, 1:04:15
kurtxevas tvit shahic dascrebia. im dros aghmosavlet saqartveloshi konstantines cinaaghmdeg dacyebulma ajanyebam da kaxetis samefosa da rusets shoris axali kavshiris damyarebam aidzula shahi droebit datmobaze casuliyo da 1606 cels aghmosavlet saqartveloshi daenishna qristiani mefeebi: teimuraz pirveli kaxetsshi, xolo luarsab meore qartlshi.
vaxushti cers-`dajda mefed batoni teimuraz, mashin iyo clisa 16 da ganagebda kaxetsa, mere moyvana coli. asuli mamia gurielisa anna, romeltanac eyola dzeebi levani da aleqsandre. 1610 cels anna gardaicvala.~
shahis dazhinebuli rchevit, rac dzaldatanebasac nishnavda, teimurazma colad qartlis mefis luarsabis da, xoreshani sheirto, romelic shoreul natesavadac ki moxvdeboda mas.qartvel avtorta azrit natesavis moyvana shahma gangeb aidzula teimurazs, rata amit qristianuli ces-chveuleba sheebghala, romelic shemdgom mis gamahmadianebas gaaadvilebda.
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