Shetyobinebebi
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Soli Deo gloria (dideba mxolod ghmerts)- adamiani tayvans unda scemdes mxolod ghmerts, radganac sulis xsna miigheba mxolod misi nebit da moqmedebit - ara mxolod ieso qristes gamomsyidveli msxverplit jvarze, aramed am gamosyidvis rcmena ideba morcmuneta gulebshi sulicmindis mier. radganac ghmerti aris "pirveli da ukanaskneli" mteli dideba ekutvnis mas da ara mis qmnilebas.

saeklesio saidumloebebidan datovebulia mxolod cylit natloba da ziareba. garda amisa, protestantebi ar loculoben gardacvlili adamianebistvis, ar scemen tayvans cmindanebs, mat neshtebs, xatebs da ar aghnishnaven matdami midzghvnil dghesascaulebs. protestantebis samlocvelo saxlebi, rogorc cesi, sadaa, ar gaachnia mdidruli atributika, xatebi da qandakebebi. radgan miachniat rom aseti dekoraciebis aucilebloba ar aris. eklesiis shenobad sheidzleba gamoiyenebodes nebismieri shenoba, romelsac qiraoben, an yiduloben. ghvtismsaxureba orientirebulia qadagebaze, locvaze da sagaloblebis shesrulebaze. ghvtismsaxurebis dauqorcinebloba, iseve rogorc daqorcineba aranairad ar reglamentirdeba da xucesebis (pastori, presviteri) piradi gadasacyvetia.
protestantizmma uaryo romis papis avtoriteti da gaauqma ber-monazvnuri sistema, rogorc sulis xsnistvis saჭiro gansakutrebuli ghvacli. amastan arseboben monastris tipis dacesebulebebic mag.: narkomanta reabilitaciis centrebi. sayoveltao sicmindis principma safudzveli daudo eklesiebis demokratiul mocyobas (mrevlis da ghvtsmsaxurta tanabroba, archevitoba, angarishvaldebuleba da a.sh.) ierarqia, iqneba es formaluri tu araformaluri, arsebobs cesrigis shesanarchuneblad da mas gansakutrebuli datvirtva ara aqvs.
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22 Ivn 09, 12:58:58
reformaciamdeli msxvili modzraobebi: katarebi (XI-XII s.), valdensebi (XII s.), lolardebi da strigolebi (XIV s.), husitebi (XV s.) reformaciuli eklesiebi (XVI s.): luteranebi, kalvinistebi, anglikanebi, anabaptistebi.
postreformaciuli modzraobebi (XVII-XIX s.): baptistebi, kongregacionalistebi, adventistebi, pietistebi, puritanebi, metodistebi, menonitebi, presviterianelebi, xsnis armia, kvakerebi.
didi gamoghvidzeba (XIX s.): ormocdaatianeloba, evangelizmi

am mimdinareobebis umetesoba "sulieri aghordzinebis" egidit formirdeboda, rata eklesia pirveli saukunis eklesiis idealebs da reformaciis arss dabruneboda. am mimdinareobebis ganmasxvavebeli nishani tavisufali qadageba da aqtiuri misioneruli moghvaceobaa.

dghevandel dghes protestantizmi camyvan poziciebzea skandinaviis qveynebshi (shvedeti, norvegia, fineti), ashsh-shi, germaniasa da didi britanetshi, moicavs holandis, danias, islandias, kanads, shveicarias, avstralias, axal zelandias da zogadad okeaniis regions. protestantuli qveynebi gamoirchevian socialurad samartliani sistemit, dzlieri saxelmcifo cyobilebit da cxovrebis maghali donit.
damaarseblebi da cnobili protestanti ghvtismsaxurebi:
jon uiklifi- ingliseli reformatori.
ian husi- chexi ghvtismsaxuri, pirveli msxvili reformatoruli modzraobis lideri.
martin luteri-protestantizmis damaarsebeli.
filip melanxtoni- adreuli protestantizmis lideri.
haldrih cvingli-adreuli shveicaruli reformaciis lideri.
jon kalvini- kalvinizmis fudzemdebeli.
baltazar hubmaieri-anabaptisti teologi.
meno simonsi- menonitebis eklesiis damaarsebeli.
jon smiti- baptizmis fudzemdebeli.
jon vesli- metodistebis xelmdzghvaneli.
bili grehemi- baptisti maxarebeli da teologi.
eduard irvingi-shotlandieli mqadagebeli.
charlz parhami-ormocdaatianeli maxarebeli.
uiliam seimuri–ormocdaatianelebis mqadagebeli.
oral robertsi- amerikeli teologi.
rainhard bonke- afrikis mociquli da maxarebeli.
beni hini- amerikeli maxarebeli da teleevangelisti.
qenet koplandi- amerikeli teleevangelisti.
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22 Ivn 09, 19:34:21
Esec qristianuli simbolo - jvari
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22 Ivn 09, 19:35:45
I S L A M I
islami (arabul. islām "ertguleba") - daaxloebit 1,3 miliardi mimdevrit qristianobis (daax. 2.1 miliardi mimdevari) shemdeg msoflioshi meore udidesi religiuri aghmsarebloba. islamis mimdevars hqvia muslimi an mahmadiani (modzvelebuli forma). carmoishva me-7 saukuneshi arabetis naxevarkundzulze. fudzemdebelia muhamedi, romelic islamuri scavlebis mixedvit ghmertis (arabulad: allah ) ukanaskneli cinascarmetyveli iyo. dghes
islami gavrcelebulia mtels msoflioshi, kerdzod axlo aghmosavletshi, chrdiloet afrikashi, samxret aziashi da samxret-aghmosavlet aziashi.muslimebi sheadgenen saqartvelos mosaxleobis daaxloebit 10%. mat ricxvs miekutvnebian saqartveloshi
mcxovrebi etnikuri azerbaijanelebi da aჭaristeritoriaze mcxovrebi qartvelebi (aჭarlebi).
mahmadi, muhamadi (arab.;muhammadun) (d. daaxl. 632, medina) islamisdamaarsebeli, religiuri mqadagebeli da politikurimoghvace. muslimanuri tradiciis da yuranis mixedvit, alahis ukanaskneli mociquli, udidesi cinascarmetyveli. tradiciuli muslimanuri biografebis mixedvit muhamedi daibada 570 cels meqashi da gardaicvala 632clis 8 ivniss medinashi, tanamedrove saudis arabetis hejazis regionshi. saxeli mahmadi arabulad nishnavs "gandidebuls". islamshi muhamedi cnobilia rogorc "cinascarmetyveli" da "macne". yurani mas aseve moixsenebs rogorc "cinascarmetyvelta beჭeds".
mahmadis shesaxeb tanamedroveta cnobebi ar shemonaxula. pirveli biografia mxolod VIII saukuneshi dacera ibnishakma. mahmadi carmoshobit iyo carchinebuli, magram gagharibebuli banuhashimis gvaridan, kuraishta tomidan. mahmadi arabetsa da mis farglebs garet gaecno iudaistur, qristianul monoteizms da sxva religias, politikur modzghvrebas. mdidari meqelivaჭris qvrivze xadijeze xelsayrelma daqorcinebam mahmads sashualeba misca mteli dro daetmo tavisi religiur-etikuri
problemebisatvis. gadmocemis mixedvit, daaxloebit 609 (an 610) ramadanis tveshi, hiris mtaze (meqis axlos) mtavarangelozma jibrailma (gabrielma) mahmads ukarnaxa cminda cigni "yurani" da daavala xalxisatvis misi gacnoba. mahmadi axali modzghvrebit mkacrad ilashqrebda carmartuli sarcmunoebis cinaaghmdeg.mahmadi tavisi moghvaceobis pirvel xanebshi did cinaaghmdegobebs caacyda da idzulebuli gaxda momxreebiturt gadasuliyo iasribshi (medinashi). 630-631clebshi muslimanebma mahmadis metaurobit daimorchiles meqa. shemdeg ki ara arabetissxva raionebzec gaavrceles dzalaufleba. mahmadi gaxda misive sheqmnili pirveli islamuri teokratiuli saxelmcifos metauri.
mahmadi dasaflavebulia medinashi. mahmadis akldama aris muslimanta meore cminda adgili qaabas shemdeg.
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22 Ivn 09, 19:41:09
Muslimanuri xelwera alahis
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22 Ivn 09, 19:43:49
I U D A I Z M I

iudaizmi (ebr. - iahadut) ebraeli eris religia; istoriashi aghnusxuli pirveli monoteisturi rcmena da antikuri xanidan shemorchenili ert-erti religia. iudaizmis doqtrina da istoria mnishvnelovani nacilia sxva monoteistur, kerdzod: samariul, qristianul da muslimanur religiata safudzvlebisa.ukanaskneli daaxloebit 2000 clis mandzilze iudaizmis praqtikuli mimdevroba monolituri ar yofila: mas ara hyolia centraluri sulieri mmartveloba; ara hqonia shemboჭavi dogma. miuxedavad amisa, yovel variaciashi iudaizmi mჭidrod dakavshirebuli darcha ramodenime religiur principtan, romeltagan umnishvnelovanesia ertaderti, yovlismcodne, yovlisshemdzle, yovlad mocyale da uxilavi (transcendentuli) ghmertis rcmena; ghmertisa, romelmac samyaro sheqmna da romelic ganagrdzobs mis gangebas. ebrauli azrovnebis mixedvit samyaros shemqmnelma ghmertma udzvelesi aghtqmit kavshiri daamyara ebrael ertan, roca mat toris saxit mis mier dadgenili kanonebi da mcnebebi gauziara. ebrauli ghvtismsaxureba yvelaze did adgils utmobs am kanonebisa da mcnebebis shescavlasa da yoveldghiur cxovrebashi ganxorcielebas ise, rogorcaa interpretirebuli religiis kanonikur cignebsa da rabinul literaturashi.iudaizmis tradiciuli tvalsazrisit, romelic tanamedrove mkvlevarta azrsac emtxveva, iudaizmi ramodemime mnishvnelovani tvisebit gansxvavdeboda misi carmoshobisas arsebuli sxva religiuri tradiciebisgan. erti aseti taviseburebaa monoteizmi: samyaros shemqmneli da kacobriobis gamkitxavi ghmertis rcmena. mashindeli politeisturi religiebismixedvit samyaro shemtxvevit gachenili iyo, xolo ghmertebs sxva ghmertebtan urtiertoba adamianta bedze metad acuxebdat. politeistur carmodgenashi ghmertebi sakutari vnebebit iyvnen dakavebulni da mati dzalebic shezghuduli iyo, iudaizmis mixedvit ki ghmerti usazghvro dzalis da yovlisshemdzlea, ris gamo samyaros martodmarto sheqmnis unarsac flobs; iudaizmis meore tavisebureba misi mimdevrebistvis torashiaghnishnul mcnebata shesrulebis valdebuleba iyo. imdroindeli xalxebis msgavsad ebraelebsac hqondat tadzari, sadac qurumebi ghmertistvis msxverpls sciravdnen, oghond es ar yofila ebrauli ghvtismsaxurebis ertaderti sashualeba.mkvlevarebs uჭirt monoteizmis aghmocenebis
periodis dadgena. ortodoqsuli iudaizmis mixedvit, xalxuri masshtabit aseti rcmenis mighebis satave ebraelebisatvis ati mcnebisa da toris (bibliis) gacema iyo, - scored am sashualebit ubrdzana ghmertma ebraelebs mxolod da mxolod misi msaxureba, xolo sxva ghvtaebata tayvaniscema an mat xelovnur gansaxierebata cinashe qedis moxra aukrdzala. toridan gamomdinareobs iudaizmis fudzemdebeli principebi: ertaderti ghmertis arseboba, maradiuloba, misi gaunacilebeli avtoroba samyaros shemoqmedebashi da misi gardauvali survilis gamoxatuleba istoriul movlenata svlashi. ebrauli tvalsazrisit, ati mcnebis gamo mat ekrdzalebat yoveli sxva ghmertis, kerpis, sulis tu xatis msaxureba; shesabamisad, isini (morcmuneni) tvit ghmertis ormnishvnelovnad an samebad carmodgenas tvlian mcvaleblobad, romelic politeizms hgavs. ghmertis unikalurobis idea toris dziritadi principia. amis gamo, misi kanonit ebraelebs ekrdzalebat yoveli iseti sagnis gaketeba an floba, romlis cinashec adamians qedis moxra sheudzlia (mag. ghmertis suratis an qandakebis). am gagebit, radgan ghmerti uxilavia, adamianma ar unda moixaros qedi raime arsebis an sagnis cinashe, rac tavad araa ghmerti.
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dzvelad ebraelebsac hqoniat salocavi da msxverlpshesaciravi tadzari ierusalimshi, sadac dziritadad dghesascaulebisas ikribebodnen. miuxedavad amisa, clis danarchen dgheebshic ar cyvetdnen qohenebis (qurumebis) yoveldghiuri yofis mibadzvas, rogorc toris kanonebitaa gansazghvruli. sxva religiebtan shedarebit ghvtismsaxurebisadmi ufro praqtikuli midgomit, iudaizmi dghesac cdilobs morcmuneta yoveldghiuri cxovreba dzvelebraul tadzarshi qurumebis mier carmoebuli yoveldghiuri ghvtismsaxurebis donemde aamaghlon. am miznis misaghcevad torashi (ebraul bibliashi) 613 micva anu ghvtis gankargulebaa mocemuli. micvebis shemsrulebeli morcmuneebi taviant yoveldghiur cxovrebas (iseti trivialuri qcevebis chatvlit, rogorc xel-piris dabana da mistanani) ritualuri cesebis mixedvit carmartaven. micvebis shemsruleblebs iudaizmi gan-edens (samotxis baghs) an olam ha'bas (momaval samyaros, e.i. mesiis mosvlisas mkvdretit aghdgomas) hpirdeba. aghsanishnavia, rom aqedan iudaizmi mxolod mkvdretit aghdgomit rcmenas avaldebulebs ebraelebs.

ebrauli bibliis temaa israelitta (igive ebraelta) urtiertoba ghmerttan, rogorc es gamoixateba mat istoriashi drois dasabamidan meore tadzris periodamde (daax. chv.celtaghricxvamde 350 clamde). es urtiertoba aghcerilia rogorc ucyveti istoria, romlis ganmavlobashi ebraelta sulshi ertmanets eჭideba ghmertis rcmena da sxva ghmertebisadmi miziduleba. iseti mnishvnelovani ebraelebi, rogorc abrami, iakobi da mose, ghmertsac sheeჭidnen torashi (abrami da iakobi ghmerts zogjer gabedulad sheepasuxnen, xolo iakobi sizmarshi ghmerts fizikurad sheebrdzola).ortodoqsuli iudaizmisa da morcnune ebraelta azris mixedvit bibliuri patriarqi abrami pirveli ebraeli iyo. rabinuli literaturis mixedvit man kacobriobashi pirvelma uaryo kerptayvanismcemloba da monoteizmi iqadaga. shedegad, mas ghmertma uricxvi shvili aghutqva. abramis pirveli shvili ishmaeli iyo, xolo meore vazhi - isaki. isakis shedzenisas ghmertma tqva, rom is gaagrdzelebda abramis sulier shromas, xolo misi shtamomavloba egvipteshigadaxvecisa da iqedan gamoxsnis shemdeg israelis micas daisakutrebda. ghmertma isakis dze iakobi da misi shvilebi gvalvit aidzula qanaanidan egvipteshi gadasuliyvnen, sadac mravali taobis shemdeg ebraelebi daimones. monobisagan gamosaxsnelad ghmertma ebraelebs mose mouvlina, egviptidan isini tviton gamoiyvana, sinais mtaze mat tora misca da sabolood aghtqmul micaze miiyvana. mtastan ghmertma moses dzmis -aronis shtamomavloba qohenebis (qurumebis) klasad daamtkica. isini sabolood ierusalimis tadzarshi msaxurebdnen.
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mebrdzol ebraelta israelis micaze dasaxlebis shemdeg aqamde modzravi ghvtis karavi (romelic ghmertma qurumobastan ertad daacesa) shiloshi damkvidrda 300 clit. am drois ganmavlobashi ghmertma ers ghirseuli kacebi, zogjer ki qalebic mouvlina tavdamsxmel mterta cinaaghmdeg mis asamxedreblad. zogi mteri ghvtis gamogzavnili iyo codvebisatvis xalxis dasasjelad. es ambebi aghcerilia isu naves dzisa da msajulta cignebshi. rac dro gadioda, eris sulieri done ufro da ufro qveitdeboda, sanam samagieros gadasaxdelad ghmertma filistimielebs shiloshi dadgmuli ghvtis karvis xelshi chagdeba sheadzlebina. mashin ki ebralma erma sheicno sakutari daknineba da samuel cinascarmetyvels stxova tomta beladebisa tu msajulebis nacvlad mistvis mudmivi mefe amoerchia (rogorc mezobel xalxebs hyavdat). samuelma uxalisod sheasrula es txovna da ghmertis dasturit mefed airchia brcyinvale, magram tavmdabali adamiani - sauli. rodesac xalxis zegavlenit man samuelis gankarguleba daarghvia, ghmertma cinascarmetyvels ubrdzana, rom mis magier mefed daviti ekurtxebina. (es motxrobilia samuelis cignebshi).rogorc ki davit mefem tavisi dzalaufleba ganamtkica, man natan cinascarmetyvels utxra, rom ghvtistvis mudmivi tadzris asheneba surs. misi ghvaclis samagierod ghmerti shehpirda davits, rom tadzars misi shvili aagebda, xolo samefo gvirgvini arasodes gamoecleboda mis shtamomavlobas. (tvit davitma ver miigho tadzris ashenebis neba, radgan bevr shina-omebshi monacileobda da ghmerts ar undoda is mshvidobis simbolod asagebi tadzris msheneblad ecno). pirveli mudmivi tadzari ghvtis nebit martlac davitis vazhma - solomonma aago ierusalimshi, rogorc mefeta cignebshia aghcerili.solomonis sikvdilis shemdeg misi samefo orad gaiyo: israelis da iudeis
samefoebad. daaxloebit 200 clis shemdeg, kerptayvanismcemlobis gavrcelebis gamo, ghmertma israelis samefo asurets daapyrobina da misi xalxi gadaasaxlebina. samxretshi, iudeis samefo, romlis dedaqalaq ierusalimshi tadzari idga, davitis dinastiis samflobelod darcha. rodesac iudeashi kerptayvanismcemloba ise momdzlavrda, rogorc chrdiloetshi, ghmertma es samefo babilons daapyrobina. dampyroblebma daangries tadzari, romelic 410 celi idga, xolo iudevelebi babilonshi gadaasaxles. xalxs nugeshad darcha ghvtis aghtqma, rom isini 70 clis shemdeg gamoixsnebodnen. es ambebi motxrobilia isaias cignshi da ieremias cignshi.70 clis shemdeg ghmertma sparselebs ebraelebi, ezras xelmdzghvanelobit, iudeashi daabrunebina. repatriantebma tadzaric aghages. es aghcerilia ezras cignshi da neemias cignshi. meore tadzari 420 celi idga, sanam shina mtrobisatvis dasasjelad ghmertma iudevelebs romaelebi ar sheusia. tadzari romaelma sardalma (shemdeg imperatorma) titusma daangria. is dangreuli unda darches, sanam ghmerti mesiad ar moavlens davitis teslis adamians, romelic israels daubrunebs dzvel didebas da ierusalimis tadzarsac aghashenebs.sinais mtaze mighebuli tora moses xut cigns moicavs. msajulta, mefeta, cinascarmetyvelta da zhamtaghmricxvelta cignebtan
ertad, xutcigneuli daceril toras sheadgens. toris gankargulebata detalebs da interpretacias, romelic ghmertma moses ar daacerina mtaze da mxolod daazepirebina, zepiri tora( tora she'be'al-pe) ecodeba. meore tadzris dangrevamde, es tora martlac zepirad gadaecemoda taobidan taobas, magram mxolod sasuliero codebis adamianebs (qurumebs, msajulebs, rabinebs). chveni celtaghricxvis pirvel saukuneebshi, rodesac diasporashi ebraelta devnam imata, zepiri tradiciis gacyvetis shishit, rabinebma am toris chacera daicyes da ase sheadgines mishna. momdevno saukuneebshi (me-7 saukunemde) tvit mishnis rabinuli interpretacia mimdinareobda; mishnashi mocemuli zepiri toris rabinul interpretacias talmudi ecodeba. zepiri toris rabinuli ganxilva sxva cminda cignebshicaa.
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22 Ivn 09, 20:14:33
Iudaizmis axali (davitis varskvl) da dzveli (shvidtota menura) simbolikebi
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22 Ivn 09, 20:15:17
B U D I Z M I

budizmi (aseve dharma an buda dharma, daax. nishnavs: kanoni, an gaghvidzebulis kanoni), religia, praqtikuli filosofia, aseve zogierti carmodgenit fsiqologia, romelic emyareba buda shakiamunis (sidharta gautamas) scavlebas. momdinareobs dzveli indoetidan, daax. dzv. c. VI- Vsaukuneebidan. budizmi indoetis subkontinetze gavrcelda xuti saukunis ganmavlobashi budas gardacvalebidan, shemdgom or atascleulshi ki dominanturi religia gaxda centralur, samxret-aghmosavlet da aghmosavlet aziashi. amzhamad budizmi iyofa sam dziritad tradiciad: teravada (sanskr.shtaviravada), mahaiana, da vajraiana. msoflioshi daax. 708 milioni mimdevari hyavs da ert-ert msoflio religiad itvleba. mimdevarta raodenobit mexutea msoflioshi qristianobis, islamis, induizmis da tradiciuli chinuri religiis shemdeg.

dzv. c. V saukuneshi tanamedrove nepalshiindoetis sazghvartan, mdinare gangis xeobashi, samefo ojaxshi daibada vazhi, romelsac saxelad sidhartadaarqvs. jer kidev shobamde brdzenebma ucinascarmetyveles, rom tu bavshvi sasaxlis kedlebsa da ezos galavans ar datovebda, msoflios mbrdzanebeli gaxdeboda, tu ara da, misgan didi cmindani, axali religiis modzghvari gamovidoda.

roca daibada, axalshobili moxucebulma brdzenma moinaxula da daadastura brahmanebis cinascarmetyveleba: es bavshvi scored is aris, vinc qveyanas axal religias moutanso. asitam gaixara misi xilviasgan, magram danaghvlianebuli cavida, radgan dzalze moxuci iyo da icoda, rom ver moescreboda am dghes.mama uflisculs ganmartoebashi zrdida, rata sasaxlis garda am qveyanaze saxva cxovrebis shesaxeb araferi scodnoda. cdilobda, cutisoflis vaeba da boroteba mas ar shexeboda. teqvsmeti clisas mefis asuli shertes colad da shvilic sheedzina.ert dghes sidhartam etlidan quchashi mshvildivit moxrili adamiani dainaxa, romelic dzlivs modzraobda xeljoxis daxmarebit, da gancvifrda, es ra ariso? meetlem utxra: nu gikvirs, es siberea, romelic yvela dabadebulis xvedriao. shin dabrunebului sidharta naghvlian fiqrebs mieca.
ert dghesac man sneulebisagan daudzlurebuli kaci dainaxa da gaigo sneulebis shesaxeb, romelic yvela adamians emuqreba.
mesamed sidhartam dainaxa gaundzrevlad mcoliare adamiani, romelic sadghac mihyavdat. roca ikitxa, utxres es mkvdaria, yvela dabadebulis xvedri es ariso.
bolos sidhartam tavgadaparsuli, yvitel samoselshi gaxveuli kaci dainaxa da, roca ikitxa, es vingha ariso, utxres es aris asketi (gandegili), romelic xetialobs amqveynad, rata ჭeshmaritebas miagnos da am cutisoflis codva-bralis saidumlo amoxsnaso, adamianebi ixsnas amqveyniuri satanjvelisagano.
da miatova 29 clis sidhartam sasaxle, mshoblebi, coli da shvili da moxetiale asketis gzas daadga. shvidi celi ixetiala sidhartam, bevri modzghvari da brdzeni moinaxula, magram matma sibrdznem ar daakmayofila: ver dainaxa mat naazrevshi ჭeshmariteba, romelic adamianebs xsnas moutanda. verc asketurma cxovrebam ver daanaxa gza xsnisaken. bolos, erti leghvis xis dziras dajda fexmortxmuli da ჭeshmaritebis gamocxadebas daeloda.
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